Thabit, T.M.A.; Abdelkareem, E.M.; Bouqellah, N.A.; Shokr, S.A. Triazole Fungicide Residues and Their Inhibitory Effect on Some Trichothecenes Mycotoxin Excretion in Wheat Grains. Molecules2021, 26, 1784.
Thabit, T.M.A.; Abdelkareem, E.M.; Bouqellah, N.A.; Shokr, S.A. Triazole Fungicide Residues and Their Inhibitory Effect on Some Trichothecenes Mycotoxin Excretion in Wheat Grains. Molecules 2021, 26, 1784.
Wheat is one of the global strategic crops and ranks third in terms of cereals production. Wheat crop is exposed to many fungal infections during the cultivation stages, some of which have the ability to secrete numbers of toxic secondary metabolites that threaten the quality of grains, consumer health, producer economics and global trade exchange. Fifty-four random samples were collected from wheat which originated from different countries. The samples included 14 of soft wheat to study the extent of their contamination with Deoxynivalenol (DON) and T-2 toxin by auto-ELISA technology and r-biopharm Microtiter plate. All samples were contaminated with DON toxin except one sample, and the contamination average ranged between 40.7 and 1018.8 µg kg-1. The highest contamination rates were in Lithuanian and the lowest in Indian wheat. Meanwhile the highest average level of T-2 toxin contamination was in Lithuanian wheat grains with a rate of 377.4µg kg-1 and the lowest in Polish wheat with an average of 115.3µg kg-1. GC-MS/MS and multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM), was used to detect 15 triazole derivatives in collected samples, which may be used to combat fungal diseases on wheat during the growing season. Only 9 derivatives were found; Simeconazole, Penconazole, Hexaconazole, Cyproconazole, Diniconazole, Tebuconazole, Metconazole, Fenbuconazole and Difenoconazole. These derivatives varied according to the origin of wheat samples as well as their its concentration whereas, another 6 derivatives were not detected in all samples. A direct inverse relationship was found between the DON concentration in the samples and the residues of Simeconazole, Penconazole, Diniconazole, Tebuconazole, Metconazole, Fenbuconazole and Difenoconazole and the T-2 toxin showed the same relationship except for Tebuconazole. The safe and rational use of some triazole derivatives may be a new approach and a promising strategy not only to reduce plant diseases and their problems, but also to get rid of some mycotoxins as contaminates.
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