Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Predicting the Curvature of the Cosmos, and Point of Volume Contraction in a Big Bounce Scenario

Version 1 : Received: 12 February 2021 / Approved: 16 February 2021 / Online: 16 February 2021 (13:41:49 CET)

How to cite: Pilot, C. Predicting the Curvature of the Cosmos, and Point of Volume Contraction in a Big Bounce Scenario. Preprints 2021, 2021020331 Pilot, C. Predicting the Curvature of the Cosmos, and Point of Volume Contraction in a Big Bounce Scenario. Preprints 2021, 2021020331

Abstract

Assuming a geometrically closed universe, we predict a value for the cosmic curvature, , a value within current observational bounds. We also propose a thermodynamic heat engine model for the universe, which bypasses the need for an inflaton field. Our model is based on a Carnot Cycle where we have isothermal expansion, followed by adiabatic expansion, followed by isothermal contraction, followed by adiabatic contraction, bringing us back to our original starting point. For the working substance, we focus specifically on the CMB radiation filling the collective voids in the universe. Using this construct, we identify cosmic inflation as the isothermal expansion phase, which lasts just under, . The collective CMB volume we see today only increases by a factor of 5.65 times during this process, and homogeneity and perturbations in the CMB are explained. The singularity problem is avoided and we have a clear mechanism for the work done by the cosmos in causing expansion, and later contraction. For scaling laws with respect to the density parameters in Friedmann’s equations, we will assume a susceptibility model for space, where, , the smeared cosmic susceptibility, decreases with increasing cosmic scale parameter, . Within this framework, we can predict a maximum Hubble volume with minimum CMB temperature for the voids before contraction begins, as well as a minimum volume with maximum CMB temperature when expansion starts. The thermodynamic heat cycle deviates from efficiency in converting heat energy into mechanical energy (expansion) by a minuscule amount, namely, . The significance of this number is not known.

Subject Areas

Big Bounce Model, Closed Universe, Cosmological Curvature, Big Crunch, Cyclic Universe, Heat Engine Model for Universe

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