Preprint Review Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Analysis of Tug of War Competition. A Narrative Complete Review

Version 1 : Received: 29 January 2021 / Approved: 1 February 2021 / Online: 1 February 2021 (10:28:03 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 13 September 2021 / Approved: 14 September 2021 / Online: 14 September 2021 (11:34:06 CEST)

How to cite: Cayero, R.; Rocandio, V.; Zubillaga, A.; Calleja, J.; Martinez de Aldama, I. Analysis of Tug of War Competition. A Narrative Complete Review. Preprints 2021, 2021010630 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202101.0630.v2). Cayero, R.; Rocandio, V.; Zubillaga, A.; Calleja, J.; Martinez de Aldama, I. Analysis of Tug of War Competition. A Narrative Complete Review. Preprints 2021, 2021010630 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202101.0630.v2).

Abstract

Tug-of-war (TOW) is an internationally played activity including professional and amateur athletes and defined as early (4000 years ago as a rope less version) in the artwork on Egyptian tomb engravings and is played as per the rules laid out by TWIF, which has 73 member countries and administrative headquarters in the USA. Typically, two teams of “pullers” participate and apply enormous contra directional forces on the pulling rope. Originally, two types of competition are used: knockout and points. This narrative review describes the scientific state of the art about of TOW. For the best of the author’s knowledge no previous information has been published. Anthropometric parameters are near 83.6, lean body mass 69.4, and body fat 16. The VO2MAX is 55.8 ml/kg/min. Relative strength, the dynamic leg power was 4659.8 N. Endurance TOW elicits minimal muscle damage. The injured strains and sprains comprised over half of all injuries: back (42%), shoulder–upper limb (23%) and knee (17%). Pulling movement in TOW contests can be divided into three phases: namely "Drop", "Hold" and "Drive" phase. The maximal pulling forces was 1041.6 ± 123.9 N. The percentage of dynamic pulling force in static maximal pulling force was 75.5 ± 14.4% and the dynamic ranged from 106.4 to 182.5%. There are two gripping styles, indoor and outdoor. The friction characteristics between surface and shoe in TOW is important to determine a suitable shoe for indoor TOW. Waist Belt might be a useful piece of equipment for TOW sport. The EMG technique in Tow described a high activity of dorsal muscle during the pulling. The factor of force vanishing was the coordination among athletes. The force vanishing percentage goes from 8.82±5.59 for 2 contenders to 19.74±2.22 for 8 athletes, 6.4 % in the sum of 2 pullers. However, in the drop phase, for female elite TOW team, only the 0.5 % of them pulling force was wasted. Future studies are need in order to understand better this historical sport activity.

Keywords

tug of war; anthropometrics; physical capacities; physiology; injuries; kinetics.

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 14 September 2021
Commenter: JULIO CALLEJA-GONZALEZ
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
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