Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Potential Role of Birds in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Zoonotic Transmission and Genotype Shift

Version 1 : Received: 25 January 2021 / Approved: 26 January 2021 / Online: 26 January 2021 (16:47:47 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Hameed, M.; Wahaab, A.; Nawaz, M.; Khan, S.; Nazir, J.; Liu, K.; Wei, J.; Ma, Z. Potential Role of Birds in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Zoonotic Transmission and Genotype Shift. Viruses 2021, 13, 357. Hameed, M.; Wahaab, A.; Nawaz, M.; Khan, S.; Nazir, J.; Liu, K.; Wei, J.; Ma, Z. Potential Role of Birds in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Zoonotic Transmission and Genotype Shift. Viruses 2021, 13, 357.

Journal reference: Viruses 2021, 13, 357
DOI: 10.3390/v13030357

Abstract

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vaccine preventable disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), which is primarily prevalent in Asia. JEV is a Flavivirus, classified into a single serotype with five genetically distinct genotypes (I, II, III, IV, and V). JEV genotype III (GIII) had been the most dominant strain and caused numerous out breaks in the JEV endemic countries until 1990. However, recent data shows the emergence of genotype I (GI) as a dominant genotype and it is gradually displacing GIII. The exact mechanism of this genotype displacement is still unclear. The virus can replicate in mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts to maintain its zoonotic life cycle; pigs and aquatic wading birds act as an amplifying/reservoir hosts, and humans and equines are the dead end hosts. The important role of pigs as an amplifying host for JEV is well known. However, the influence of other domestic animals especially birds that live in high abundance and close proximity to human is not well studied. Here, we strive to briefly highlight the role of birds in JEV zoonotic transmission, discovery of birds as a natural reservoirs and amplifying host for JEV, species of birds susceptible to JEV infection, and the proposed effect of JEV on poultry industry in future perspective which have been neglected for a long times. We also discussed the recent in vitro and in vivo studies which show that the newly emerged GI viruses replicated more efficiently in bird-derived cells and ducklings/chicks than GIII, and an important role of birds in the JEV genotype shift from GIII to GI.

Subject Areas

Japanese encephalitis virus; birds; genotype shift; JEV genotype I; JEV genotype III

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