Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Variation of Patulin Levels in Citrus Fruits from Central Cities of Punjab and Northern Cities of Pakistan, and Estimation of Dietary Intake

Version 1 : Received: 21 January 2021 / Approved: 22 January 2021 / Online: 22 January 2021 (14:33:10 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2021
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18052270


The research aims to discover the natural occurrence of patulin (PAT) in selected citrus fruits from the central cities of Punjab and Pakistan's Northern cities. Total 2970 samples of twelve citrus fruits; kinnow, orange, grapefruits, bitter orange, mausami, red blood, pineapple, sweet orange, rough lime, sweet lime, kagzi lime and lemon were examined using liquid chromatography fitted with UV detector. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification limit was 0.04 and 0.12 µg/kg, respectively. The results have shown that 56% of samples of citrus fruits from Punjab's central cities, Pakistan, were discovered to be infected from PAT. The elevated amounts of PAT ranging from 0.04 to 1150 µg/kg were found in citrus fruit samples from Multan cities. Furthermore, 31.7% of samples of citrus fruits from Northern cities of Pakistan were discovered to be infected with PAT, and the elevated amounts were found ranging from 0.04-320 µg/kg from Swat city. About 22.1% of samples of citrus fruits have levels of PAT greater than the suggested limits established by the European Union (EU). PAT's dietary intake levels ranged from 0.10-1.11 µg/kg bw/day from the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan, and 0.13-1.93 µg/kg bw/day were documented from Northern cities of Pakistan


Citrus fruits; patulin; dietary intake; variation in patulin; liquid chromatography


LIFE SCIENCES, Biochemistry

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