Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Carbon-Based Nanomaterials: Promising Antiviral Agents to Combat COVID-19 in the Microbial Resistant Era

Version 1 : Received: 14 January 2021 / Approved: 15 January 2021 / Online: 15 January 2021 (13:30:21 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: ACS Nano 2021
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.1c00629

Abstract

Therapeutic options for the highly pathogenic human Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the current pandemic Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are urgently needed. COVID-19 is associated with viral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The proposed treatments for COVID-19, such as hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown little or no effect in the clinic. Additionally, bacterial and fungal pathogens contribute to the SARS-CoV-2 mediated pneumonia disease complex. The antibiotic resistance in pneumonia treatment is increasing at an alarming rate. Therefore, carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs), such as fullerene, carbon dots, graphene, and their derivatives constitute a promising alternative due to their wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility, biodegradability and capacity to induce tissue regeneration. Furthermore, the antimicrobial mode of action is mainly physical (e.g. membrane distortion), which is characterized by a low risk of antimicrobial resistance. In this review, we evaluated the literature on the antiviral activity and broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties of CBNs. CBNs had antiviral activity against 12 enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2. CBNs with low or no toxicity to the humans are promising therapeutics against COVID-19 pneumonia complex with other viruses, bacteria and fungi, including those that are multidrug-resistant.

Keywords

COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; carbon-based nanomaterials; antiviral properties; pneumonia

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