Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Comparison of Environmental Effects from Oil and Gas Produced Fluids using Combined Field and Laboratory Investigations

Version 1 : Received: 18 December 2020 / Approved: 21 December 2020 / Online: 21 December 2020 (10:15:14 CET)

How to cite: Swigart, J.; Heo, J.; Wolf, D. Comparison of Environmental Effects from Oil and Gas Produced Fluids using Combined Field and Laboratory Investigations. Preprints 2020, 2020120490 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0490.v1). Swigart, J.; Heo, J.; Wolf, D. Comparison of Environmental Effects from Oil and Gas Produced Fluids using Combined Field and Laboratory Investigations. Preprints 2020, 2020120490 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202012.0490.v1).

Abstract

Rotary drilling for oil and natural gas uses drilling fluid for lubrication of the bit, to seal off unstable shale layers, and floating out rock cuttings. Drilling fluid is a water-clay chemical mixture. Produced water is a water-sand chemical mixture. Land farming is a common disposal technique of drilling fluid and produced water. In the land farming process, amendments of fluid are repeatedly applied to the soil surface. Plant growth and soil chemical properties may be altered by additions of drilling fluid, because of alkalinity, salinity, trace elements, and petroleum residue contained in waste. The objective of this study was to determine the change in soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen and carbon, and extractable nutrient levels following the land application of drilling fluid and produced water. The study was a comparison of three plots with similar soil properties and conditions. The three study plots had various levels of drilling fluid and produced water applications. The data show a major difference from field-to-field for EC, Na, and Cl levels. The EC and salt levels increased with additional applications of drilling fluid and produced water. The percent total nitrogen values and plant available P levels were very low in all fields. High EC and salt values, coupled with low N and P levels, would be detrimental to plant growth and development. To successfully vegetate this land-farm site, application of N and P fertilizer would be required. This study will help to give a better understanding of practical ways to land-farm drilling fluid and produced water in a fashion that both minimizes environmental issues and is economically feasible. Salinity changes to soil were expected to be high; there are excessive amounts of sodium and chloride in spent drilling fluid and produced water.

Subject Areas

Environmental effects; oil and gas; produced water; drilling fluid; soil

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.