Shen, M.-Y.; Kuan, C.-F.; Kuan, H.-C.; Ke, C.-Y.; Chiang, C.-L. Flame Retardance and Char Analysis of an Eco-Friendly Polyurethane Hyperbranched Hybrid Using the Sol–Gel Method. Sustainability2021, 13, 486.
Shen, M.-Y.; Kuan, C.-F.; Kuan, H.-C.; Ke, C.-Y.; Chiang, C.-L. Flame Retardance and Char Analysis of an Eco-Friendly Polyurethane Hyperbranched Hybrid Using the Sol–Gel Method. Sustainability 2021, 13, 486.
This study used the sol–gel method to synthesize a non-halogenated hyperbranched flame retardant containing nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon, HBNPSi, which was then added to a polyurethane (PU) matrix to form an organic–inorganic hybrid material. Using 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of P- and Si-mapping, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, this study determined the organic and inorganic dispersity, morphology, and flame retardance mechanism of the hybrid material. The condensation density of the hybrid material PU/HBNPSi was found to be 74.4%. High condensation density indicates a dense network structure of the material. The P- and Si-mapping showed that adding inorganic additives in quantities of either 20% or 40% results in homogeneous dispersion of the inorganic fillers in the polymer matrix without agglomeration, indicating that the organic and inorganic phases had excellent compatibility. In the burning test, adding HBNPSi to PU resulted in the material passing the UL-94 standard at the V2 level, unlike the pristine PU, which did not meet the standard. The results demonstrated that after non-halogenated flame retardant was added to PU, the material’s flammability and dripping were lower, thereby proving that flame retardants containing elements such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and silicon exert an excellent flame retardant synergistic effect.
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