Immidisetti, A.V.; Nwagwu, C.D.; Adamson, D.C.; Patel, N.V.; Carbonell, A.-M. Clinically Explored Virus-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Recurrent High-Grade Glioma in Adults. Biomedicines2021, 9, 138.
Immidisetti, A.V.; Nwagwu, C.D.; Adamson, D.C.; Patel, N.V.; Carbonell, A.-M. Clinically Explored Virus-Based Therapies for the Treatment of Recurrent High-Grade Glioma in Adults. Biomedicines 2021, 9, 138.
As new treatment modalities are being explored in neuro-oncology, viruses are emerging as a promising class of therapeutics. Virotherapy consists of introduction of either wild-type or engineered viruses to the site of disease, where they exert anti-tumor effect. These viruses can either be non-lytic, in which case they are used to deliver gene therapy, or lytic, which induce tumor cell lysis and subsequent host immunologic response. Replication-competent viruses can then go on to further infect and lyse neighboring glioma cells. This treatment paradigm is being explored extensively in both preclinical and clinical studies for a variety of indications. Virus-based therapies are advantageous due to the natural susceptibility of glioma cells to viral infection, which improves therapeutic selectivity. Furthermore, lytic viruses expose glioma antigens to the host immune system and subsequently stimulate an immune response that specifically targets tumor cells. This review surveys the current landscape of oncolytic virotherapy clinical trials in high-grade glioma, summarizes preclinical experiences, identifies challenges associated with this modality across multiple trials, and highlights potential to integrate this therapeutic strategy into promising combinatory approaches.
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