Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Role of Gut Microbiota and Their Metabolites on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension and Human Blood Platelet Function: A Review

Version 1 : Received: 4 December 2020 / Approved: 7 December 2020 / Online: 7 December 2020 (10:34:31 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Duttaroy, A.K. Role of Gut Microbiota and Their Metabolites on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension and Human Blood Platelet Function: A Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 144. Duttaroy, A.K. Role of Gut Microbiota and Their Metabolites on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension and Human Blood Platelet Function: A Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 144.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2021, 13, 144
DOI: 10.3390/nu13010144

Abstract

Emerging data have demonstrated a strong association between the gut microbiota and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as atherosclerosis, inflammation, obesity, insulin resistance, platelet hyperactivity, and plasma lipid abnormalities. Several studies in humans and animal models have demonstrated an association between gut microbial metabolites, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), short-chain fatty acids, and bile acid metabolites, amino acid breakdown products, with CVD. Human blood platelets are a critical contributor to the hemostatic process. Besides, these blood cells play a crucial role in developing atherosclerosis and, finally, contribute to cardiac events. Since the TMAO, and other metabolites of the gut microbiota, are associated with platelet hyperactivity, lipid disorders, and oxidative stress, the diet-gut microbiota interactions have become an important research area in the cardiovascular field. Platelets became hyperactive in people with diabetes mellitus, sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and insulin resistance and exhibited increased sensitivity at a baseline level and in response to agonists, ultimately contributing to increased aggregation plaque development. In addition to these factors, TMAO also contributes to platelet hyperactivity. Several approaches are now suggested to reduce plasma TMAO levels, such as microbiota modulation using probiotics, prebiotics, and oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. This review describes the association between microbiota-derived metabolites and CVD development.

Keywords

Platelet; microbiota; TMA; Atherosclerosis

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