Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

What Is the Temperature? Modern Outlook on the Concept of Temperature

Version 1 : Received: 11 November 2020 / Approved: 12 November 2020 / Online: 12 November 2020 (09:49:55 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Bormashenko, E. What Is Temperature? Modern Outlook on the Concept of Temperature. Entropy 2020, 22, 1366. Bormashenko, E. What Is Temperature? Modern Outlook on the Concept of Temperature. Entropy 2020, 22, 1366.


The meaning and evolution of the notion of “temperature” (which is a key concept for the condensed and gaseous matter theories) is addressed from the different points of view. The concept of temperature turns out to be much more fundamental than it is conventionally thought. In particular, the temperature may be introduced for the systems built of “small” number of particles and particles in rest. The Kelvin temperature scale may be introduced into the quantum and relativistic physics due to the fact, that the efficiency of the quantum and relativistic Carnot cycles coincides with that of the classical one. The relation of the temperature to the metrics of the configurational space describing the behavior of system built from non-interacting particles is demonstrated. The Landauer principle asserts that the temperature of the system is the only physical value defining the energy cost of isothermal erasing of the single bit of information. The role of the temperature the cosmic microwave background in the modern cosmology is discussed.


temperature; quantum Carnot engine; relativistic Carnot cycle; metrics of the configurational space; Landauer principle


Physical Sciences, Acoustics

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.