Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Isomerization and Properties of Isomers of Carbocyanine Dyes

Version 1 : Received: 20 November 2018 / Approved: 26 November 2018 / Online: 29 November 2018 (00:00:00 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Pronkin, P.; Tatikolov, A. Isomerization and Properties of Isomers of Carbocyanine Dyes. Sci 2019, 1, 19. Pronkin, P.; Tatikolov, A. Isomerization and Properties of Isomers of Carbocyanine Dyes. Sci 2019, 1, 19.

Journal reference: Sci 2019, 1, 19
DOI: 10.3390/sci1010019


One of the important features of polymethine (cyanine) dyes is isomerization around one of C–C bonds of the polymethine chain. In this review, spectral properties of the isomers, photoisomerization and thermal back isomerization of carbocyanine dyes, mostly meso-substituted carbocyanine dyes, are considered. meso-Alkyl-substituted thiacarbocyanine dyes are present in polar solvents mainly as cis isomers and, hence, exhibit no photoisomerization, whereas in nonpolar solvents, in which the dyes are in the trans form, photoisomerization takes place. In contrast, the meso-substituted dyes 3,3′-dimethyl-9-phenylthiacarbocyanine and 3,3′-diethyl-9-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)thiacarbocyanine occur as trans isomers and exhibit photoisomerization in both polar and nonpolar solvents. The behavior of these dyes may be explained by the fact that the phenyl ring of the substituent in their molecules can be twisted at some angle, removing the substituent from the plane of the molecule and reducing its steric effect on the conformation of the trans isomer. In some cases, photoisomerization of cis isomers of meso-substituted carbocyanine dyes is also observed (for some meso-alkyl-substituted dyes complexed with DNA and chondroitin-4-sulfate; for 3,3′-diethyl-9-methoxythiacarbocyanine in moderate polarity solvents). The cycle photoisomerization–thermal back isomerization of cyanine dyes can be used in various systems of information storage and deserves further investigation using modern research methods.

Subject Areas

carbocyanine dyes; isomerization; trans and cis isomers; <em>meso</em>-substituted cyanines

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