Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Status During Pregnancy and Its Impact on Infant Neurodevelopment

Version 1 : Received: 19 October 2020 / Approved: 20 October 2020 / Online: 20 October 2020 (08:37:41 CEST)

How to cite: Basak, S.; Mallick, R.; Duttaroy, A.K. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Status During Pregnancy and Its Impact on Infant Neurodevelopment. Preprints 2020, 2020100406 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0406.v1). Basak, S.; Mallick, R.; Duttaroy, A.K. Maternal Docosahexaenoic Acid Status During Pregnancy and Its Impact on Infant Neurodevelopment. Preprints 2020, 2020100406 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0406.v1).

Abstract

Dietary components are important for the structural and functional development of the brain. Among these, docosahexaenoic acid,22:6n-3 (DHA) is critically required for the structure and development of the growing fetal brain in utero. DHA is the major n-3 long-chain fatty acid in brain gray matter representing about 15% of all fatty acids in the human frontal cortex. DHA affects neurogenesis, neurotransmitter, synaptic plasticity & transmission, and signal transduction in the brain. Studies in animals and humans show that adequate levels of DHA in neural membranes are important for cortical astrocyte maturation and vascular coupling, and helps cortical glucose uptake and metabolism. In addition, specific metabolites of DHA are bioactive molecules that protect tissues from oxidative injury and stress in the brain. A low DHA level in the brain results in behavior changes and is associated with learning problems and memory deficits. In humans, the third trimester-placental supply of maternal DHA to the growing fetus is critically important as the growing brain obligatory requires DHA during this window period. Besides, DHA is also involved in the early placentation process, essential for placental development. This underscores the critical importance of maternal DHA intake for the structural and functional development of the brain. This review describes DHA's multiple roles during gestation, lactation, and the consequences of its lower intake during pregnancy and postnatally on the children's brain development and function.

Subject Areas

DHA; Brain; MFSD2a; SPM; Fetus; Placenta; infacnts; Neurogenesis; Pregnancy; Pre-term

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