Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Climatic Trend in Different Bioclimatic Zones in Chitwan Annapurna Landscape, Nepal

Version 1 : Received: 8 October 2020 / Approved: 9 October 2020 / Online: 9 October 2020 (14:03:16 CEST)

How to cite: Luitel, D.R.; Jha, P.K.; Siwakot, M.; Shrestha, M.L.; Munniappan, R. Climatic Trend in Different Bioclimatic Zones in Chitwan Annapurna Landscape, Nepal. Preprints 2020, 2020100206 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0206.v1). Luitel, D.R.; Jha, P.K.; Siwakot, M.; Shrestha, M.L.; Munniappan, R. Climatic Trend in Different Bioclimatic Zones in Chitwan Annapurna Landscape, Nepal. Preprints 2020, 2020100206 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0206.v1).

Abstract

Abstract Depending upon altitudinal gradient in the Himalayas, the rate of climate change varies from lowland to upland. The Chitwan Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) is the central part of the Himalayas and covers all bioclimatic zones. Analysis of time series data (1970-2019) of temperature and precipitation was carried out in seven bioclimatic zones extending from lowland Terai to higher Himalayas. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to determine the trend, which was quantified by Sen’s slope. Annual and decade interval average temperature, precipitation trends, and lapse rate were analyzed in each bioclimatic zone. Out of seven bioclimatic zones, four zones showed a decreasing precipitation trend (lower tropical, upper tropical, upper subtropical, and alpine bioclimatic zones)at the rate of 1.8, 1.98, 2.06, and 1.80 mm/year, and in lower sub-tropical, temperate, and lower subalpine bioclimatic zones, increasing at the rate of 0.45, 1.81 and 1.28mm/year, respectively. Precipitation did not show any particular trend at decade intervals. The average annual temperature at different bioclimatic zones clearly indicates that temperature at higher elevations is significantly increasing more than at lower elevations. In lower tropical bioclimatic zone (LTBZ), upper tropical bioclimatic zone(UTBZ), lower subtropical bioclimatic zone (LSBZ), upper subtropical bioclimatic zone(USBZ), and temperate bioclimatic zone(TBZ), the average temperature increased by 0.022, 0.030, 0.036, 0.042 and 0.051oC/year, respectively. The decade level temperature scenario revealed that the hottest decade was from 1999-2009. The average temperature was found as 24.1, 21.8, 19.7, 17.5, and 13.3oC in LTBZ, UTBZ, LSBZ, USBZ, and TBZ, respectively, and the average annual precipitation in LTBZ, UTBZ, LSBZ, USBZ, TBZ, LBZ, and ABZ was 2002.1, 2613.1, 2223.9, 3146.9, 1447.2, 952.1, and 361.7mm/year, respectively, in CHAL. With the impact of climate change site and region-specific, this information highlights the need to mitigate climate change in different bioclimatic zones.

Subject Areas

bioclimatic zones; climate change; precipitation; temperature; trend

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