Preprint Article Version 2 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Mitigation of Gaseous Emissions from Swine Manure with the Surficial Application of Biochars

Version 1 : Received: 25 September 2020 / Approved: 25 September 2020 / Online: 25 September 2020 (13:05:56 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 23 October 2020 / Approved: 26 October 2020 / Online: 26 October 2020 (09:33:12 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Meiirkhanuly, Z.; Koziel, J.A.; Chen, B.; Białowiec, A.; Lee, M.; Wi, J.; Banik, C.; Brown, R.C.; Bakshi, S. Mitigation of Gaseous Emissions from Swine Manure with the Surficial Application of Biochars. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 1179. Meiirkhanuly, Z.; Koziel, J.A.; Chen, B.; Białowiec, A.; Lee, M.; Wi, J.; Banik, C.; Brown, R.C.; Bakshi, S. Mitigation of Gaseous Emissions from Swine Manure with the Surficial Application of Biochars. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 1179.

Journal reference: Atmosphere 2020, 11, 1179
DOI: 10.3390/atmos11111179

Abstract

Environmental impact associated with odor and gaseous emissions from animal manure is one of the challenges for communities, farmers, and regulatory agencies. Microbe-based manure additives treatments are marketed and used by farmers for mitigation of emissions. However, their performance is difficult to assess objectively. Thus, comprehensive, practical, and low-cost treatments are still in demand. We have been advancing such treatments based on physicochemical principles. The objective of this research was to test the effect of the surficial application of a thin layer (¼"; 6.3 mm) of biochar on the mitigation of gaseous emissions (as the percent reduction, % R) from swine manure. Two types of biochar were tested: highly alkaline and porous (HAP) biochar made from corn stover and red oak (RO), both with different pH and morphology. Three 30-day trials were conducted with a layer of HAP and RO (2.0 & 1.65 kg∙m-2, respectively) applied on manure surface, and emissions of ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), greenhouse gases (GHG), and odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured. The manure and biochar type and properties had an impact on the mitigation effect and its duration. RO significantly reduced NH3 (19-39%) and p-cresol (66-78%). H2S was mitigated (16~23%), but not significantly for all trials. Significant (66~78%) reductions for p-cresol were observed for all trials. The phenolic VOCs had relatively high % R in most trials but not significantly for all trials. HAP reduced NH3 (4~21%) and H2S (2~22%), but not significantly for all trials. Significant % R for p-cresol (91~97%) and skatole (74~95%) were observed for all trials. The % R for phenol and indole ranged from (60~99%) & (29~94%) but was not significant for all trials. The impact on GHGs, isobutyric acid, and the odor was mixed with some mitigation and generation effects. However, larger-scale experiments are needed to understand how biochar properties and the dose and frequency of application can be optimized to mitigate odor and gaseous emissions from swine manure. The lessons learned can also be applicable to surficial biochar treatment of gaseous emissions from other waste and area sources.

Subject Areas

air quality; air pollution; sustainable animal production; livestock and poultry; waste management; odor, ammonia; hydrogen sulfide; greenhouse gases; volatile organic compounds

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 26 October 2020
Commenter: Jacek Koziel
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: A revised version of the manuscript.
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