Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Hypothalamic A11 Nuclei Regulate the Circadian Rhythm of the Mechanonociception and the Spinal Clock Gene Transcription through Dopamine Receptor Activation

Version 1 : Received: 7 September 2020 / Approved: 8 September 2020 / Online: 8 September 2020 (11:26:08 CEST)

How to cite: Piña-Leyva, C.; Lara-Lozano, M.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M.; Vidal-Cantú, G.C.; Zavalza-Barrientos, E.; Jiménez-Estrada, I.; Delgado-Lezama, R.; Rodríguez-Sosa, L.; Granados-Soto, V.; Florán-Garduño, B.; González-Barrios, J.A. Hypothalamic A11 Nuclei Regulate the Circadian Rhythm of the Mechanonociception and the Spinal Clock Gene Transcription through Dopamine Receptor Activation. Preprints 2020, 2020090188 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0188.v1). Piña-Leyva, C.; Lara-Lozano, M.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, M.; Vidal-Cantú, G.C.; Zavalza-Barrientos, E.; Jiménez-Estrada, I.; Delgado-Lezama, R.; Rodríguez-Sosa, L.; Granados-Soto, V.; Florán-Garduño, B.; González-Barrios, J.A. Hypothalamic A11 Nuclei Regulate the Circadian Rhythm of the Mechanonociception and the Spinal Clock Gene Transcription through Dopamine Receptor Activation. Preprints 2020, 2020090188 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202009.0188.v1).

Abstract

Patients with degenerative diseases refer to feeling more pain during the night. However, it is unknown whether spinal nociception can be circadian and how is it controlled. We investigated whether the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) could exhibit physiological circadian behavior as well as the contribution of the dopaminergic A11 nucleus and the spinal dopamine (DA) receptors (DRs) on the circadian PWT and the spinal clock gene transcription. Results revealed that control rats present a circadian PWT. Injecting 6-hydroxidopamine (6-OHDA) into the dopaminergic A11 nucleus reduced DA tissue content in the lumbar spinal cord, abolished the circadian PWT, induced allodynia, and reduced Period 1 and 2 (Per1 and 2), retinoid-related orphan receptor α (Rorα), Cryptochrome 1 (Cry1), and brain and muscle aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein (Bmal) mRNA. Likewise, administration of D1-like and D2-like DR antagonists blunted circadian PWT, producing allodynia, and altered the clock genes mRNA. In contrast, administration of D1-like or D2-like DR agonists blocked 6-OHDA-induced allodynia. This study shows that the spinal cord has physiological circadian PWT, which is modulated by the descending dopaminergic A11 through differential activation of the spinal DRs. Also, A11 nuclei and spinal DRs can regulate the clock gene transcription, which can likely modulate the circadian PWT.

Subject Areas

Pain; spinal cord; dopamine receptors; clock gene; dopaminergic A11 nuclei; paw withdrawal threshold

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