Mota-Rojas, D.; Olmos-Hernández, A.; Verduzco-Mendoza, A.; Hernández, E.; Martínez-Burnes, J.; Whittaker, A.L. The Utility of Grimace Scales for Practical Pain Assessment in Laboratory Animals. Animals2020, 10, 1838.
Mota-Rojas, D.; Olmos-Hernández, A.; Verduzco-Mendoza, A.; Hernández, E.; Martínez-Burnes, J.; Whittaker, A.L. The Utility of Grimace Scales for Practical Pain Assessment in Laboratory Animals. Animals 2020, 10, 1838.
Animals’ facial expressions have been widely used as a readout for emotion. Scientific interest in the facial expressions of laboratory animals has centered primarily on negative experiences, such as pain, experienced as a result of scientific research procedures. Recent attempts to standardize evaluation of facial expressions associated with pain in laboratory animals has culminated in the development of “grimace scales”. In the context of laboratory animals, these have been developed and evaluated for mice, rats, rabbits, sheep, and ferrets. The prevention or relief of pain in laboratory animals is a fundamental requirement for in vivo research to satisfy community expectations. However, to date it appears that the grimace scales have not seen widespread implementation as clinical pain assessment techniques in biomedical research. In this review, we discuss some of the barriers to implementation of the scales in clinical laboratory animal medicine, progress made in automation of collection, and suggest avenues for future research.
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