Article
Version 2
This version is not peer-reviewed

# New Quantum Diodes with Superconducting Properties at Non-Freezing Temperatures, and Their Computing Applications

Version 1
: Received: 26 August 2020 / Approved: 26 August 2020 / Online: 26 August 2020 (09:55:19 CEST)

Version 2 : Received: 16 November 2020 / Approved: 17 November 2020 / Online: 17 November 2020 (12:50:24 CET)

Version 2 : Received: 16 November 2020 / Approved: 17 November 2020 / Online: 17 November 2020 (12:50:24 CET)

How to cite:
Ishiguri, S. New Quantum Diodes with Superconducting Properties at Non-Freezing Temperatures, and Their Computing Applications. *Preprints* **2020**, 2020080577
Ishiguri, S. New Quantum Diodes with Superconducting Properties at Non-Freezing Temperatures, and Their Computing Applications. Preprints 2020, 2020080577

## Abstract

Two opposed p–n diodes are connected with another junction that causes cancellation of the electric field in the depletion layer of each diode by the field of the other diode. This derived quantum diode is called the A system. Another dual diode, constructed by the same process but with the p- and n-types positioned as duality, called the B system. When a bias voltage is applied between the A and B systems, Lorentz conservation imparts a momentum (i.e., a wave number) to the carriers in the absence of any internal voltage. Thus, a superconducting bias current density appears without the need for cooling. The reappearances of electron–hole pairs on the junction surfaces are assumed to be described by entire wavefunctions normalized by the band gap. Based on the bias superconducting current, NOT and NAND gates were constructed from the quantum diode systems. Numerical calculations revealed that the constant phases of the entire wavefunctions of the p-and n-types converged. Accordingly, it was clarified that Bose–Einstein condensation and the Meissner effect (described by the London equation) occurred in the quantum diode systems. Moreover, the systems exhibited rectification characteristics and a switching speed of the order of 10

^{-14}s. Combining this switching property with the large bias superconducting current (of the order of several V), we developed NOT and NAND gates with direct quantum correlations among many qubits, which are unaffected by random and thermal noises. These gates have memorization and initialization properties and are compatible with existing and accumulating programing algorithms. Moreover, when harvesting a divergent current output from these systems, the bias superconducting current and memorization property preserve the formed quantum correlations.## Subject Areas

quantum diode; quantum gate element; novel superconductivity; bias current; memorization property; quantum correlation

Copyright: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## Comments (1)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public commentSend a private comment to the author(s)

Commenter: S. Ishiguri

Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author

(1) Rotational moving electron around hole having zero momentum with combination by attractive Coulomb force expressed by Eq. (18-1).

(2) Rotational moving hole around electron having zero momentum with combination by attractive Coulomb force expressed by Eq. (18-2).

Thus importantly a Cooper pair in the present paper is like an exciton. For details, see section 3.3.Moreover, in the process of the above revision, the derivation of a London equation in the previous paper was slightly revised and the result is supported by a literature [24]. However, the conclusion remains that the London equation (i.e., the Meissner effect) is formed. Please see eq. (62) to eq. (68) in section 5.1. Finally, I have revised the previous paper in terms of expressions that are lengthy or unclear over the whole paper, as minor changes. As a result, the revised version has derived more readability. To conclude, we have a much clearer physical picture for the mechanism of this new superconductivity including the identity of combination force among a Cooper pair in addition that the revised paper has obtained more readability.