Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Fine-Tuning of GLI Activity Through Arginine Methylation: Its Mechanisms and Function

Version 1 : Received: 15 August 2020 / Approved: 20 August 2020 / Online: 20 August 2020 (09:58:05 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Abe, Y.; Tanaka, N. Fine-Tuning of GLI Activity through Arginine Methylation: Its Mechanisms and Function. Cells 2020, 9, 1973. Abe, Y.; Tanaka, N. Fine-Tuning of GLI Activity through Arginine Methylation: Its Mechanisms and Function. Cells 2020, 9, 1973.


The glioma-associated oncogene (GLI) family consists of GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3 in mammals, and is the effector in the Hedgehog signaling pathway. This family has important roles in the development and homeostasis of various tissues. To achieve these roles, the GLI family has widespread outputs. GLI activity is therefore strictly regulated at multiple levels, including via post-translational modifications for context-dependent GLI target gene expression. Conversely, dysregulated GLI activation has strong links with a variety of cancers. The protein arginine methyl transferase (PRMT) family is also associated with embryogenesis, homeostasis, and cancer via epigenetic modifications and signal transduction. In the PRMT family, PRMT1, PRMT5, and PRMT7 reportedly regulate GLI1 and GLI2 activity. PRMT1 methylates GLI1 to upregulate its activity and target gene expression. Cytoplasmic PRMT5 methylates GLI1 and is involved in GLI1 protein stabilization. In contrast, nucleic PRMT5 interacts with MENIN to suppress growth arrest-specific protein 1 expression, which assists Hedgehog ligand binding to Patched, indirectly resulting in downregulated GLI1 activity. PRMT7-mediated GLI2 methylation upregulates its activity through the dissociation of GLI2 and Suppressor of Fused. Therefore, PRMT1, PRMT5, and PRMT7 regulate GLI activity at multiple levels, and PRMT-mediated GLI dysregulation may be involved in cancer formation.


Hedgehog signaling pathway; GLI family; protein arginine methyl transferase; signal transduction


Biology and Life Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

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