Working Paper Article Version 3 This version is not peer-reviewed

A Contextual Foundation for Mechanics, Thermodynamics, and Evolution

Version 1 : Received: 19 July 2020 / Approved: 20 July 2020 / Online: 20 July 2020 (11:35:07 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 17 August 2020 / Approved: 20 August 2020 / Online: 20 August 2020 (09:18:59 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 1 December 2020 / Approved: 2 December 2020 / Online: 2 December 2020 (11:02:52 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 17 February 2021 / Approved: 18 February 2021 / Online: 18 February 2021 (10:33:37 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 6 March 2021 / Approved: 8 March 2021 / Online: 8 March 2021 (13:48:36 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 19 June 2021 / Approved: 2 July 2021 / Online: 2 July 2021 (14:26:03 CEST)

How to cite: Crecraft, H. A Contextual Foundation for Mechanics, Thermodynamics, and Evolution. Preprints 2020, 2020070469 Crecraft, H. A Contextual Foundation for Mechanics, Thermodynamics, and Evolution. Preprints 2020, 2020070469


The prevailing interpretations of physics are based on deeply entrenched assumptions, rooted in classical mechanics. Logical implications include: the denial of entropy and irreversible change as fundamental physical properties; the inability to explain random quantum measurements or nonlocality without unjustifiable assumptions and untestable metaphysical implications; and the inability to explain or even define the evolution of complexity. The dissipative conceptual model (DCM) is based on empirically justified assumptions. It acknowledges the contextual relationship between a physical system and its positive- temperature ambient background, and it extends HCM descriptions by defining entropy and exergy as objective contextual properties of state. The irreversible production of entropy establishes the thermodynamic arrow of time and a system’s process of dissipation as fundamental. The DCM defines a system’s measurable rate of internal work as an objective measure of stability of dissipative process. A dissipative system can follow either of two different paths leading to higher stability: 1) increase its exergy supply or 2) improve its function utilizing its existing exergy supply. The evolution of life proceeded both by competition for resources and by cooperation to evolve and sustain higher functional complexity.


Physical Foundations; Quantum mechanics; Nonlocality; Time; Entropy; Thermodynamics; Origin of Life


Physical Sciences, Acoustics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 2 December 2020
Commenter: Harrison Crecraft
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Version 3 expands version 2’s section 2.4 into two sections: 2.4—The Quantization and Refinement of Space and 2.5—Entropy, Wavefunction Collapse, and Measurement. Version 3 also adds section 4.3—Whirlpools and Entropy Production, and section 4.4—Oscillations and Synchronization. These provide detailed analysis of the application of Postulate 5 (The Kelvin Selection Principle) to explain the empirical stability of whirlpools (despite their lower rate of entropy production) and the stability of oscillations and synchronization of oscillations. Version 2’s Section 5.3—Emergence was eliminated.Figures 1 and 2 were revised. Figure 3, 4 were added to the new section 2.4 and Figures 12-15 were added to the new sections 2.4 and 2.5.
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