Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Starting from the Influence of Tobacco: AKR1C3 and COVID-19 Receptor ACE2 Are Potential Pprognostic Biomarkers for Brain Lower Grade Glioma, Evidence from Bioinformatics Analyses

Version 1 : Received: 17 July 2020 / Approved: 19 July 2020 / Online: 19 July 2020 (14:49:09 CEST)

How to cite: Yang, H.; Mao, T. Starting from the Influence of Tobacco: AKR1C3 and COVID-19 Receptor ACE2 Are Potential Pprognostic Biomarkers for Brain Lower Grade Glioma, Evidence from Bioinformatics Analyses. Preprints 2020, 2020070411 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0411.v1). Yang, H.; Mao, T. Starting from the Influence of Tobacco: AKR1C3 and COVID-19 Receptor ACE2 Are Potential Pprognostic Biomarkers for Brain Lower Grade Glioma, Evidence from Bioinformatics Analyses. Preprints 2020, 2020070411 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0411.v1).

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) related pneumonia is leaded by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which infects host cells through receptors named Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Smoking is thought to be related to poor disease prognosis, as a large amount of evidence highlights the negative effects of smoking on lung health and its causal relationship with various respiratory diseases. Methods: We first evaluated the role of ACE2 expression level with tobacco effect. And correlation analyses were used to identify the related genes of ACE2 both in smoker trait and human normal multi-tissues. After intersections, hub genes were later used to further GSEA and co-regulated mechanisms were explored by GeneMANIA. We used UALCAN to perform survival curves of pan-cancers included 33 types of cancers. New clinical model of top co-occurrence cancer type was constructed and validated. Results: Effected by cigarette smoking, the expression level of ACE2 expressed statistically upwards in current smokers compared with never smokers, upwards in groups after acute smoke exposed compared with normal control. But no strong evidence detected in third-hand smoke, as poor amounts of samples, only 4. A little trend of expressing upwards became in groups after third-hand smoke compared with groups after clean air exposing. 4 genes included PIR, ADH7, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 were identified as ACE2 related genes in smoker trait and human normal multi-tissues. Then, we made the survival curves of pan-cancers in 4 genes. Brain lower grade glioma was the co-occurrence type as both ACE2, PIR and AKR1C3 had the significantly prognostic situation. Later, we made the new clinical prediction model as the C-index was 0.827 and the Area Under Curves (AUCs) of 1-year survival, 2-year survival and 3-year survival were 0.921(95%CI, 0.882-0.961), 0.911(95%CI, 0.860-0.962) and 0.878(95%CI, 0.818-0.939). In inner validation, the AUCs of 1-year survival, 2-year survival and 3-year survival were 0.777(95%CI, 0.640-0.914), 0.916(95%CI, 0.842-0.990) and 0.888(95%CI, 0.768-1.000). In outer validation one, the AUCs of 1-year survival, 2-year survival and 3-year survival were 0.764(95%CI, 0.672-0.856), 0.848(95%CI, 0.783-0.913) and 0.748(95%CI, 0.656-0.841). And in outer validation two the AUCs of 1-year survival, 2-year survival and 3-year survival were 0.740(95%CI, 0.654-0.826), 0.766(95%CI, 0.688-0.843) and 0.794(95%CI, 0.721-0.866). Conclusions: In our study, we compared the ACE2 expression level between smokers and non-smokers crowds and identified associated hub genes. Then we explored the further role of hub genes in tumor fields to identify the correlation and influence between the avoidable host factors such as smoking on COVID-19 contamination and tumor. ACE2 and AKR1C3 are potential prognostic genes for brain lower grade glioma, and we created the web dynamic nomogram and encapsulation app through validations.

Subject Areas

ACE2; COVID-19; Brain lower grade glioma; AKR1C3

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