Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Foetal Music Perception: A Comparison Study between Heart Rate and Motor Responses Assessed by APIB Scale in Ultrasound Exam

Version 1 : Received: 14 July 2020 / Approved: 16 July 2020 / Online: 16 July 2020 (07:49:50 CEST)

How to cite: Tristao, R.M.; Jesus, J.A.L.D.; Lemos, M.D.L.; Freire, R.D. Foetal Music Perception: A Comparison Study between Heart Rate and Motor Responses Assessed by APIB Scale in Ultrasound Exam. Preprints 2020, 2020070345 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0345.v1). Tristao, R.M.; Jesus, J.A.L.D.; Lemos, M.D.L.; Freire, R.D. Foetal Music Perception: A Comparison Study between Heart Rate and Motor Responses Assessed by APIB Scale in Ultrasound Exam. Preprints 2020, 2020070345 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202007.0345.v1).

Abstract

Music perception in foetuses has been explored under different theoretical paradigms such as habituation, categorical perception, sound preferences and recall. This study investigated the temporal dimension of music perception through the habituation and sensitization paradigm. Foetuses of 41 pregnant women, mean gestational age of 34.7 weeks (±2.4), were observed during ultrasound exams. Foetuses’ reaction to two different tempos (Allegro vs Adagio) and sources (internal vs external) of music stimuli was registered by heart rate variability (HR) and motor response according to the Assessment of Preterm Infants Behaviour scale (APIB) by its factors of movement (MOV) and organization (ORG). A folkloric lullaby, sung and played live with a stringed instrument by a musician, was presented in three stages that were compared to baseline: 1) slow tempo (Adagio), 2) fast tempo (Allegro); and 3) now sung by mother at slow tempo (Adagio). Exploratory analyses showed that all factors increased from baseline to first stage. HR and ORG varied significantly among stages, with HR being the strongest factor. MOV merely detected change from baseline to first stage. ORG decreased for Allegro but increased for maternal Adagio, while HR decreased to near baseline values. ANOVA-repeated measures with gestational age as covariate showed that all measures were sensitive to first music presentation (Adagio), although only HR and ORG differed among stages. Considering estimated marginal means, adjusted for gestational age, HR presented a sensitization pattern throughout stages, but ORG kept habituating to external source and increased to maternal Adagio, suggesting foetal discrimination by sound source. We conclude that foetuses showed different behavioural and physiological responses to external versus internal sound source and musical tempo. The combined use of a behavioural scale (APIB) and HR in foetuses proved to be a valid multidimensional instrument.

Subject Areas

foetus; music perception; tempo; heart rate variability; ultrasound exam; APIB scale; habituation; sensitization

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