Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

$L_p$ Loss Functions in Invariance Alignment and Haberman Linking

Version 1 : Received: 3 June 2020 / Approved: 4 June 2020 / Online: 4 June 2020 (13:25:49 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.


The comparison of group means in latent variable models plays a vital role in empirical research in the social sciences. The present article discusses extensions of invariance alignment and Haberman linking concerning the choice of linking functions for comparisons of many groups. Robust linking functions are proposed for invariance alignment and robust Haberman linking that are particularly suited to item response data under partial invariance. In a simulation study, it is shown that both linking approaches have comparable performance, and in some conditions, the newly proposed robust Haberman linking outperforms invariance alignment.


factor model; 2PL model; linking; invariance alignment; Haberman linking; partial invariance; item response model; structural equation model; differential item functioning


Computer Science and Mathematics, Mathematics

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.