Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Magnetic Nanomaterials as Contrast Agents for MRI

Version 1 : Received: 26 April 2020 / Approved: 28 April 2020 / Online: 28 April 2020 (08:53:32 CEST)

How to cite: Caspani, S.; Magalhaes, R.; Araujo, J.P.; Sousa, C.T. Magnetic Nanomaterials as Contrast Agents for MRI. Preprints 2020, 2020040490 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202004.0490.v1). Caspani, S.; Magalhaes, R.; Araujo, J.P.; Sousa, C.T. Magnetic Nanomaterials as Contrast Agents for MRI. Preprints 2020, 2020040490 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202004.0490.v1).

Abstract

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a powerful, non-invasive and nondestructive tool, capable of providing three-dimensional (3D) images of living organisms. The use of magnetic contrast agents has allowed clinical researchers and analysts to enormously increase the sensitivity and specificity of MRI since these substances change the intrinsic properties of the tissues within a living body, increasing the information present in the images. The advances in nanotechnology and materials science as well as the research of new magnetic effects have been the driving forces that propel the use of magnetic nanostructures as promising alternatives to the commercial contrast agents used in MRI. This review discusses the principles associated with the use of contrast agents in MRI as well as the most recent reports focused on nanostructured contrast agents. The potential applications of gadolinium (Gd) and manganese Mn-based nanomaterials and iron oxide nanoparticles in this imaging technique are discussed as well, from their magnetic behavior to the mainly used materials and nanoarchitectures. Then, it is also addressed the recent efforts made to develop new types of contrast agents based on synthetic antiferromagnetic and high-aspect ratio nanostructures. Furthermore, the application of these materials in theragnosis, either as contrast agents and controlled drug release, contrast agents and thermal therapy or contrast agents and radiosensitizers, is also presented.

Subject Areas

nanomaterials; iron oxide nanoparticles; magnetic nanodiscs; synthetic antiferromagnetic nanostructures; nanowires; contrast agents; MRI; theragnosis

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