Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

A Quick, Green and Simple Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for the Valorization of Antioxidant Phenolic Acids from Moroccan Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb) Cold-Pressed Oil Residues

Version 1 : Received: 14 April 2020 / Approved: 19 April 2020 / Online: 19 April 2020 (04:06:15 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Tungmunnithum, D.; Elamrani, A.; Abid, M.; Drouet, S.; Kiani, R.; Garros, L.; Kabra, A.; Addi, M.; Hano, C. A Quick, Green and Simple Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for the Valorization of Antioxidant Phenolic Acids from Moroccan Almond Cold-Pressed Oil Residues. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3313. Tungmunnithum, D.; Elamrani, A.; Abid, M.; Drouet, S.; Kiani, R.; Garros, L.; Kabra, A.; Addi, M.; Hano, C. A Quick, Green and Simple Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for the Valorization of Antioxidant Phenolic Acids from Moroccan Almond Cold-Pressed Oil Residues. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3313.

Journal reference: Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 3313
DOI: 10.3390/app10093313

Abstract

Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb) is one of the most important nut crops both in terms of area and production. Over the last decades, an important part of the beneficial actions for health associated with their consumption was attributed to the phenolic compounds, mainly accumulated in almond skin. Interestingly, after cold-pressed oil extraction, most of these antioxidant phenolic compounds are retained in a skin-enriched by-product, so-called almond cold-pressed oil residue. In Morocco, ranked fifth producer in the world, this production generates an important part of this valuable byproduct. In the present study, using a multivariate Box-Behnken design, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) method of phenolic compounds from Moroccan almond cold-pressed oil residue was developed and validated. Response surface methodology resulted in the optimal extraction conditions: the use of aqueous EtOH 53.0% (v/v) as green solvent, applying an US frequency of 27.0 kHz for an extraction duration of 29.4 min. The present USAE allowed substantial gains in terms of extraction efficiency compared to conventional heat reflux extraction. Applied to 3 different local Beldi genotypes growing at 3 different experimental sites, the optimal USAE conditions led to a total phenolic content of 13.86 mg/g dry weight (DW). HPLC analysis revealed that the main phenolic compounds from this valuable byproduct were: chlorogenic acid followed by protocatechuic acid, p-hydrobenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. The accumulation of these phenolic compounds appeared to be more dependent on the genetic background than on the environmental impact here represented by the 3 experimental culture sites. Both in vitro cell free and cellular antioxidant assays were performed, and revealed the great potential of these extracts. In particular, correlation analysis evidenced the prominent roles of chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and p-hydrobenzoic acid. To summarize, the USAE method presented here is a quick, green, simple and efficient validated USAE for the possible valorization of antioxidant phenolic compounds from Moroccan almond cold-Pressed oil residues, making it possible to generate extracts with attractive antioxidant activities for future nutraceutical and/or cosmetic applications.

Subject Areas

almond; antioxidant; by-products; chlorogenic acid; design of experiment; phenolic acids; ultrasound-assisted extraction

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