: Received: 31 March 2020 / Approved: 31 March 2020 / Online: 31 March 2020 (22:24:23 CEST)
: Received: 29 April 2020 / Approved: 30 April 2020 / Online: 30 April 2020 (05:19:00 CEST)
Vilkhovoy, M.; Adhikari, A.; Vadhin, S.; Varner, J.D. The Evolution of Cell Free Biomanufacturing. Processes2020, 8, 675.
Vilkhovoy, M.; Adhikari, A.; Vadhin, S.; Varner, J.D. The Evolution of Cell Free Biomanufacturing. Processes 2020, 8, 675.
Cell free systems are a widely used research tool in systems and synthetic biology and a promising platform for manufacturing of proteins and chemicals. In the past, cell free biology was primarily used to better understand fundamental biochemical processes. Notably, E. coli cell free extracts were used in the 1960s to decipher the sequencing of the genetic code. Since then, the transcription and translation capabilities of cell free systems have been repeatedly optimized to improve energy efficiency and protein yield. Today, cell free systems, in combination with the rise of synthetic biology, have taken on a new role as a promising technology for just in time manufacturing of therapeutically important biologics and high-value small molecules. They have also been implemented in an industrial scale for the production of antibodies and cytokines. In this review, we discuss the evolution of cell free systems, advancements in cell free protein synthesis, and cell free metabolic engineering, and conclude with discussing the importance and feasibility of mathematical modeling in cell free systems.
cell free protein synthesis; cell free metabolic engineering; metabolic modeling
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