Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. It is theorized that underlying genetic and epigenetic changes enable cells to proliferate out of control by escaping regulatory mechanisms. The progression of cancer is associated with increased cell proliferation, metabolic modifications, resistance to apoptosis, genetic instability, induction of angiogenesis and augmented migratory capability. Recent developments in DNA and RNA analysis have made it possible to study these genetic changes systematically. These advances have enabled us to possess a deeper knowledge of the signaling pathways and involved processes. In-depth studies of the pathways involved in carcinogenesis have led to the identification of pathways that may be targeted for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we provide an overview of the relevant mechanisms and pathways involved in the development and progression of cancer.
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