Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Vitamin D Dietary Intake through Dairy Products to Reduce the Risk of Osteoporosis

Version 1 : Received: 27 February 2020 / Approved: 29 February 2020 / Online: 29 February 2020 (11:46:01 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 20 May 2020 / Approved: 22 May 2020 / Online: 22 May 2020 (05:18:43 CEST)

How to cite: Polzonetti, V.; Pucciarelli, S.; Vincenzetti, S.; Polidori, P. Vitamin D Dietary Intake through Dairy Products to Reduce the Risk of Osteoporosis. Preprints 2020, 2020020465 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0465.v1). Polzonetti, V.; Pucciarelli, S.; Vincenzetti, S.; Polidori, P. Vitamin D Dietary Intake through Dairy Products to Reduce the Risk of Osteoporosis. Preprints 2020, 2020020465 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0465.v1).

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D and calcium are the most important dietary compounds that affect bone mass, even if other minerals (potassium, zinc, etc.) and other vitamins (A, C and K) are also involved. Vitamin D, in fact, plays an important role in calcium homeostasis and calcium absorption. Talking about calcium, it is well known the “calcium paradox”: hip fractures incidence are higher in western countries, where calcium is frequently included in human diet, while the occurrence of these fractures is lower in developing countries, where diets are normally poor in calcium. This paradox may be partially understood considering vitamin D content in serum of local population; a report produced by WHO/FAO experts team investigating on diet, nutrition and the prevention of specific diseases stated that there is enough clinical data demonstrating that an intake of vitamin D and calcium together sufficient to cover dietary requirements can greatly reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture in older people. Vitamin D can also act as a hormone; vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is derived from the UV-B radiation of ergosterol, the vitamin D precursor naturally found in plants, fungi, and invertebrates. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) is originated by sunlight exposure from 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor of cholesterol that can also act as a provitamin D3. Dietary intake of vitamin D is very important when skin is exposed for short times to ultraviolet B light (UV-B) one of the three kind of invisible light rays together with UV-A and UV-C. This can be considered the usual situation in some latitude and in winter season, or the typical condition for older people and/or for people with vey white delicate skin. Actually, the recommended daily intake of dietary vitamin D is strictly correlated with age, ranging from 5 μg for infants, children, teen-agers and adults, including women during pregnancy and lactation, to 15 μg for people over 65 years.

Subject Areas

vitamin D; calcium; bone mass; osteoporosis; dairy foods; fortified foods

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