Preprint Short Note Version 4 This version is not peer-reviewed

The Pneumonia Outbreak: High Isoleucine and High Valine Plus Glycine Contents Are Features of the Proteins of COVID-19 Virus

Version 1 : Received: 19 February 2020 / Approved: 20 February 2020 / Online: 20 February 2020 (07:07:36 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 26 February 2020 / Approved: 29 February 2020 / Online: 29 February 2020 (11:24:04 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 19 March 2020 / Approved: 20 March 2020 / Online: 20 March 2020 (09:14:58 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 28 March 2020 / Approved: 30 March 2020 / Online: 30 March 2020 (04:56:42 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 13 June 2020 / Approved: 14 June 2020 / Online: 14 June 2020 (17:43:37 CEST)

How to cite: Wan, Y.; Yan, S.; Zhang, Y.; An, S.; Yang, K.; Xu, H.; Gan, T.; Cao, W.; Liu, Q. The Pneumonia Outbreak: High Isoleucine and High Valine Plus Glycine Contents Are Features of the Proteins of COVID-19 Virus. Preprints 2020, 2020020289 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0289.v4). Wan, Y.; Yan, S.; Zhang, Y.; An, S.; Yang, K.; Xu, H.; Gan, T.; Cao, W.; Liu, Q. The Pneumonia Outbreak: High Isoleucine and High Valine Plus Glycine Contents Are Features of the Proteins of COVID-19 Virus. Preprints 2020, 2020020289 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202002.0289.v4).

Abstract

The current pneumonia epidemic could evolve into a pandemic on a global scale if not effectively contained. The COVID-19 possesses a 61-amino acid open reading frame resembling SARS-CoV virulence factor - ORF6 peptide. The isoleucine content is 15.9% in ORF6 of SARS-CoV versus 16.4% of that in COVID-19. Given the proton affinity in the carbonyl oxygen in isoleucine, augmented proton traffic can enhance proton-ion antiport and prompt cell swelling. Calorie restriction has been confirmed in animal studies to extend lifespan, and its underlying mechanism is not fully known. As the content of essential amino acids in the open reading frame of COVID-19 reaches 57.4%, a starch/vitamin diet served for short period of time does not give rise to essential amino acids and halts virion production, which could be adopted as prophylactic approach of many viral infections. Plant-based diet or fasting/boiled rice water can also minimize the intake of essential amino acids or all amino acids respectively. Furthermore, several proteins of COVID-19 possess high valine plus glycine content which is implicated in heart disease, justifying the aforementioned approaches.

Subject Areas

COVID-19; proton affinity; calcium oxalate; isoleucine; valine; glycine; prophylactic approach

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 30 March 2020
Commenter: Qiuyun Liu
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: 1. Title modified;
2. ADDED: Lysine preferentially attracts small anions such as Cl- and helps solubilize calcium oxalate, and the beneficial or adverse effects of lysine supplement need to be studied for severe COVID-19 patients since modest lysine intake modifies the proteome and enhances the synthesis of lysine-rich proteins. Due to the allergic response of arginine intake and potential calcium affinity of guanidyl group, arginine supplement is not recommended.

Due to the presence of insoluble calcium oxalate, cancer patients and young people with constipation problems should be very cautious about the COVID-19 virus.(An et al., 2020; Wan et al., 2019) Individuals with regular diarrhea might develop less severe symptoms as hydrogen bonding capacity allows the buildup of proton pool and acids, which are capable of solubilizing insoluble and rigid salts.
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