Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Conceptual Problems in Bell's Inequality and Quantum Entanglement

Version 1 : Received: 10 February 2020 / Approved: 10 February 2020 / Online: 10 February 2020 (15:17:59 CET)

How to cite: Gu, Y. Conceptual Problems in Bell's Inequality and Quantum Entanglement. Preprints 2020, 2020020128. Gu, Y. Conceptual Problems in Bell's Inequality and Quantum Entanglement. Preprints 2020, 2020020128.


The description of the microscopic world in quantum mechanics is very different from that in classical physics, and there are some points of view that are contrary to intuition and logic. The first is the loss of reality, the behavior of micro particles shows randomness and hopping. The second is the loss of certainty, the conjugate physical variables of a system cannot be determined synchronously, they satisfy the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The third is the non-local correlation. The measurement of one particle in the quantum entanglement pair will change the state of the other entangled particle simultaneously. In this paper, some concepts related to quantum entanglement, such as EPR correlation, quantum entanglement correlation function, Bell's inequality and so on, are analyzed in detail. Analysis shows that the mystery and confusion in quantum theory may be caused by the logical problems in its basic framework. Bell's inequality is only a mathematical theorem, but its physical meaning is actually unclear. The Bell state of quantum entangled pair may not satisfy the dynamic equation of quantum theory, so it cannot describe the true state of microscopic particles. In this paper, the correct correlation functions of spin entanglement pair and photonic entanglement pair are strictly derived according to normal logic. Quantum theory is a more fundamental theory than classical mechanics, and they are not parallel relation in logic. However, there are still some unreasonable contents in the framework of quantum theory, which need to be improved. In order to disclose the real relationship between quantum theory and classical mechanics, we propose some experiments which show the wave-particle duality simultaneously and provide intuitionistic teaching materials for the new interpretation of quantum theory.


Quantum mechanics interpretation; mathematical foundation of quantum mechanics; EPR correlation; Bohm's hidden variable theory; quantum entanglement; Bell's inequality; quantum correlation function; Schroedinger equation; Heisenberg uncertainty relation


Physical Sciences, Quantum Science and Technology

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Comment 1
Received: 19 March 2020
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: The discussion with reviewers, which may be more valuable than the paper itself:

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