Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Kayvirus Distant Homolog of Staphylococcal Virulence Determinants and VISA Biomarker is a Phage Lytic Enzyme That Decreases S. aureus Tolerance to Vancomycin

Version 1 : Received: 22 December 2019 / Approved: 23 December 2019 / Online: 23 December 2019 (13:10:05 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Głowacka-Rutkowska, A.; Ulatowska, M.; Empel, J.; Kowalczyk, M.; Boreczek, J.; Łobocka, M. A Kayvirus Distant Homolog of Staphylococcal Virulence Determinants and VISA Biomarker Is a Phage Lytic Enzyme. Viruses 2020, 12, 292. Głowacka-Rutkowska, A.; Ulatowska, M.; Empel, J.; Kowalczyk, M.; Boreczek, J.; Łobocka, M. A Kayvirus Distant Homolog of Staphylococcal Virulence Determinants and VISA Biomarker Is a Phage Lytic Enzyme. Viruses 2020, 12, 292.

Journal reference: Viruses 2020, 12, 292
DOI: 10.3390/v12030292

Abstract

Staphylococcal bacteriophages of Kayvirus genus are candidates for therapeutic applications. One of their proteins, Tgl, is slightly similar to staphylococcal virulence factors, secreted autolysins of lytic transglycosylase motifs, IsaA and SceD. We show that Tgl is also a lytic enzyme secreted by bacterial transport system and localizes to cell peripheries, like IsaA and SceD. It caused lysis of E. coli cells expressing the cloned tgl gene, but could be overproduced when depleted of signal peptide. S. aureus cells producing Tgl lysed in the presence of nisin, which mimics the action of phage holin. In vitro, Tgl protein was able to destruct S. aureus cell walls. The production of Tgl decreased S. aureus tolerance to vancomycin, unlike the production of SceD, which is associated with the decreased sensitivity to vancomycin. In the genomes of kayviruses, the tgl gene is located a few genes away from gene lysK, encoding the major endolysin. While lysK is a late phage gene, tgl can be transcribed by a host RNA polymerase, as are phage early genes. Taken together our data indicate that tgl is a part of kayviruses lytic module and encodes an additional endolysin which can act in concert with LysK in cell lysis.

Subject Areas

Staphylococcus aureus; bacteriophage; Kayvirus genus; endolysin; virulence determinants; vancomycin

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