Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Assessment of the DRT System Based on an Optimal Routing Strategy

Version 1 : Received: 20 November 2019 / Approved: 21 November 2019 / Online: 21 November 2019 (10:27:38 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Kim, J. Assessment of the DRT System Based on an Optimal Routing Strategy. Sustainability 2020, 12, 714. Kim, J. Assessment of the DRT System Based on an Optimal Routing Strategy. Sustainability 2020, 12, 714.


Demand responsive transport (DRT) is operated according to flexible routes, dispatch intervals, and dynamic demand, is attracting a lot of attention. The biggest characteristic of DRT service is that the vehicle routes and schedules are operated optimally based on real-time travel requests of using passengers without fixed operating schedules. Today, the smart-city era has arrived, particularly because of progress in the wireless communications technology and technology related to location information service and real-time passenger demands and requests, and services that change the vehicles’ operating schedules in real-time according to dynamic demand have attracted more attention. In this study, we analyze the effects of the DRT system to solve the first mile/last mile problem based on a proposed DRT routing algorithm considering real-time travel behavior. The algorithm is modified from the dynamic vehicle routing problem (DVRP), in which a DRT-based routing algorithm tends to minimize users’ cost and providers’ operation cost. So far, the DVRP has only been able to serve a single request per vehicle at a time. However, this needs to be extended for the purpose of DRT, wherein several passengers board a vehicle at the same time. The routing algorithm can serve multiple requests at a time and schedule picks ups, drop offs, and rides according to the requests and as calculated by the dispatch algorithm. The basic principle of routing is as follows. The DRT vehicle moves on an attractive path and picks up a passenger if boarding is requested, but it does not simply hang around as a DVRP would. In this step, if another DRT vehicle is present near another passenger, the vehicle that would minimize that passenger’s total travel time picks up the passenger. The optimal routing algorithm developed in this study is applied to the activity-based model; that is, a microscopic traffic demand estimation method is implemented through an activity-based model by using an open-source, activity-based model package called Multi-Agent Transport Simulation (MATSim). MATSim is used for the simulation, because it combines a multi-modal traffic flow simulation with a scoring model for agents, and it provides co-evolutionary algorithms that can alter agents’ daily routines. This process is applied to a type of mode choice and route choice repeatedly over several iterations until some form of user equilibrium has been reached. This study analyzed the feasibility of implementing the DRT service by analyzing the benefits for the users and cost of the operator from the effects of increasing public transportation use and providing personalized mobility service based on DRT implementation by the introduction of DRT will be analyzed according to the scale of DRT supply. Through the simulation, the DRT is expected to provide convenient, fast, and cost-effective mobility services to customers; provide an optimal vehicle scale to providers; and, ultimately, achieve a safe and efficient transportation system.


DRT; DVRP; MATSim; first mile/last mile; Optimal Routing Strategy


Engineering, Control and Systems Engineering

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