Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

The Potential Influence of the Microbiome on the Development and Progression of ADHD

Version 1 : Received: 15 October 2019 / Approved: 17 October 2019 / Online: 17 October 2019 (09:04:10 CEST)

How to cite: Bull-Larsen, S.; Mohajeri, M.H. The Potential Influence of the Microbiome on the Development and Progression of ADHD. Preprints 2019, 2019100189 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201910.0189.v1). Bull-Larsen, S.; Mohajeri, M.H. The Potential Influence of the Microbiome on the Development and Progression of ADHD. Preprints 2019, 2019100189 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201910.0189.v1).

Abstract

The latest research cumulates staggering information about the correlation between the microbiota-gut-brain axis and neurodevelopmental disorders. This review aims to shed light on the potential influence of the microbiome on the development of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disease, attention-deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD). As the etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD are still unclear, finding viable biomarkers and effective treatment still represent a challenge. Therefore, we focused on factors that have been associated with a higher risk of developing ADHD while simultaneously influencing the microbial composition. We reviewed the effect of a differing microbial composition on neurotransmitter concentrations important in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Additionally, we deduced factors that correlate with a high prevalence of ADHD while simultaneously affecting the gut microbiome such as emergency c-sections, and premature birth as the former leads to a decrease of the gut microbial diversity and the latter causes neuroprotective Lactobacillus levels to be reduced. Also, we assessed nutritional influences such as breastfeeding, ingestion of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on the host’s microbiome and development of ADHD. Finally, we discussed the potential significance of Bifidobacterium as a biomarker for ADHD, the importance of preventing premature birth as prophylaxis and nutrition as a prospective therapeutic measurement against ADHD.

Subject Areas

microbiome; microbiota-gut-brain axis; ADHD; attention-deficit-hyperactive-disorder

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