Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

# Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Water: A Review

Version 1 : Received: 8 October 2019 / Approved: 8 October 2019 / Online: 8 October 2019 (10:27:34 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 12 February 2020 / Approved: 12 February 2020 / Online: 12 February 2020 (12:12:00 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Khan F.M., Gupta R. (2020) Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Groundwater: A Review. In: Jeon HY. (eds) Sustainable Development of Water and Environment. ICSDWE 2020. Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Cham. Khan F.M., Gupta R. (2020) Escherichia coli (E. coli) as an Indicator of Fecal Contamination in Groundwater: A Review. In: Jeon HY. (eds) Sustainable Development of Water and Environment. ICSDWE 2020. Environmental Science and Engineering. Springer, Cham.

Journal reference: Environmental Science and Engineering 2020
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-45263-6_21

## Abstract

Escherichia coli or E. coli is a member of the fecal coliform group and is a more specific indicator of fecal contamination than other fecal coliform species, its presence indicate possibly presence of harmful bacteria which will cause diseases and it also suggests the extent as well as the nature of the contaminants. E. coli bacteria able to survive in water for 4 – 12 weeks and at present, it appears as an indicator to provide the accurate bacterial contamination of fecal matter in drinking water, because of the availability of simple, affordable, fast, sensitive and exact detection techniques. According to the laboratory experiment based techniques, 24 - 48 hours are required for the bacterial concentration to be reported. So, there is a necessity for continuous monitoring. Techniques for detection of many pathogenic bacterial strains are not yet available, sometimes days to weeks are required to get the results. To overcome the difficulties, expensive and time-consuming techniques are required to detect, count and identify the presence of specific bacterial strain. Public health relies on online monitoring of water quality that depends majorly on examination of fecal indicator bacteria, thus protection of health requires fecal pollution indicator so that it is not required to analyze drinking water to overcome the problems associated with waterborne diseases. This paper will brief the classification, sources, survival of E. coli bacteria and its correlation with basic water quality parameters in water sources.`

## Keywords

escherichia coli, e. coli, indicator, fecal coliform bacteria, water, bacteriological analysis, fcb, classification.

## Subject

ENGINEERING, Civil Engineering

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