The evolution of knowledge in biological and medical areas which made possible scientific and technological advances are attributed to anatomical studies, physiology and immunology in animals, contributing to the discovery of prophylactic measures and treatments of diseases that affect humans and animals. Currently, substitution is suggested by alternative methods that do not use laboratory animals, however in vitro methods may never be able to provide similar results to in vivo methods. Mice and rats are the most used animals in experimental researches, the anatomical, histological and genetic differences between species should be carefully evaluated, to better apply the study model and avoid unnecessary waste avoid. This study, aimed at an anatomical comparative and histological relationship between a rat´s and a mouse´s organs, is of great importance in experimental studies. For such, 30 Mus musculus (Swiss) mice and 15 Rattus norvegicus (Wistar) male and heterogenic rats, were used. All animals were kept free of pathogenic microorganisms, with the absence of surgical interventions that could cause anatomical and physiological changes. It was possible to observe significant anatomical and histological differences between spleens, brains, hearts, stomachs and intestines, livers, eyes, lungs and kidneys among species, which will serve as a basis to assist in choosing the most satisfactory research model. Few studies relate specific characteristics among laboratory animals, being restricted to a few veterinary and zoology books. The greater the organic, physiological and anatomical similarities are with the human being, the greater is the applicability of the animals in studies. However, it is not possible to lay down general rules to validate the extrapolation from one species to another.
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