Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Effects of Time, Temperature, and Solvent Ratio on the Extraction of Non-Extractable Polyphenols with Anticancer Activity of Barhi Date Palm Kernels Extracts Using Response Surface Methodology

Version 1 : Received: 2 July 2019 / Approved: 3 July 2019 / Online: 3 July 2019 (09:23:01 CEST)

How to cite: Mahmud, I.; E. S. Mirghani, M.; Yusof, F.; Al-khatib, M. Effects of Time, Temperature, and Solvent Ratio on the Extraction of Non-Extractable Polyphenols with Anticancer Activity of Barhi Date Palm Kernels Extracts Using Response Surface Methodology. Preprints 2019, 2019070055 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201907.0055.v1). Mahmud, I.; E. S. Mirghani, M.; Yusof, F.; Al-khatib, M. Effects of Time, Temperature, and Solvent Ratio on the Extraction of Non-Extractable Polyphenols with Anticancer Activity of Barhi Date Palm Kernels Extracts Using Response Surface Methodology. Preprints 2019, 2019070055 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201907.0055.v1).

Abstract

Dietary polyphenols exist in two forms; extractable polyphenols (EPP) or compounds solubilised by aqueous/organic solvents, and non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP) or compounds remain in the corresponding residues after the extraction. At present, most researchers focus on EEP fractions, while NEPP is neglected. Thus, this study aimed to release NEPP from the remaining powder residue of Barhi date palm kernels (BDPK) with acid hydrolysis. The related extraction conditions were determined and optimised using response surface methodology (RSM) for maximisation of NEPP with highest cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The face-centred central composite design (FCCCD) was used to establish treatments based on three independent variables, namely; extraction temperature, time, and solvent/sample ratio. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental values for DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of NEPP (IC50=57.52µg/mL), and cytotoxicity of NEPP against A549 and HT29 cells were IC50=17.4 µg/mL and 31.4µg/mL, respectively. The experimental values were in agreement with those predicted by RSM models, confirming the suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM for optimisation of the extraction conditions for NEPP from BDPK. These results indicate that NEPP from industrial date fruit waste could be a promising candidate as natural antioxidants with significant antiproliferation effect against A549 and HT29 cancer cells in-vitro.

Subject Areas

Barhi date palm kernels (BDPK); non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP); anticancer activity; antioxidant activity; response surface methodology; optimisation.

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