Preprint Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

A Standardized Nomenclature and Atlas of the Male Terminalia of Drosophila melanogaster

Version 1 : Received: 7 June 2019 / Approved: 10 June 2019 / Online: 10 June 2019 (08:55:53 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 26 July 2019 / Approved: 27 July 2019 / Online: 27 July 2019 (02:10:53 CEST)

How to cite: Rice, G.; david, J.; Kamimura, Y.; Masly, J.; Mcgregor, A.; Nagy, O.; Noselli, S.; Nunes, M.D.S.; O'Grady, P.; Sánchez-Herrero, E.; Siegal, M.; Toda, ​.; Rebeiz, M.; Courtier-Orgogozo, V.; Yassin, A. A Standardized Nomenclature and Atlas of the Male Terminalia of Drosophila melanogaster. Preprints 2019, 2019060071 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201906.0071.v2). Rice, G.; david, J.; Kamimura, Y.; Masly, J.; Mcgregor, A.; Nagy, O.; Noselli, S.; Nunes, M.D.S.; O'Grady, P.; Sánchez-Herrero, E.; Siegal, M.; Toda, ​.; Rebeiz, M.; Courtier-Orgogozo, V.; Yassin, A. A Standardized Nomenclature and Atlas of the Male Terminalia of Drosophila melanogaster. Preprints 2019, 2019060071 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201906.0071.v2).

Abstract

Animal terminalia represent some of the most diverse and rapidly evolving structures in the animal kingdom, and for this reason have been a mainstay in the taxonomic description of species. The terminalia of Drosophila melanogaster, with its wide range of experimental tools, have recently become the focus of increased interest in the fields of development, evolution, and behavior. However, studies from different disciplines have often used discrepant terminologies for the same anatomical structures. Consequently, the terminology of genital parts has become a barrier to integrating results from different fields, rendering it difficult to determine what parts are being referenced. We formed a consortium of researchers studying the genitalia of D. melanogaster to help establish a set of naming conventions. Here, we present a detailed visual anatomy of male genital parts, including a list of synonymous terms, and suggest practices to avoid confusion when referring to anatomical parts in future studies. The goal of this effort is to facilitate interdisciplinary communication and help newcomers orient themselves within the exciting field of Drosophila genitalia.

Subject Areas

genitalia; terminalia; anatomy; Drosophila melanogaster; nomenclature

Comments (3)

Comment 1
Received: 27 July 2019
Commenter: Gavin Rice
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Added flybase referecences and updated the text to address issues from comments we received from this preprint
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Comment 2
Received: 4 August 2019
Commenter: Tadeusz Zatwarnicki
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Dear authors,
many thanks for citing of my paper on the origin of the eremoneuran hypopygium. You did not consider my second remark on gonocoxite (see below).

The best primary source (it could be additional to McAlpine, 1981 and Sinclair, 2000) for classical terminology and illustrating of hypopygial structures is Cumming et al., 1995:
Cumming, J. M., B. J. Sinclair, D. M. Wood, 1995, Homology and phylogenetic implications of male genitalia in Diptera - Eremoneura. Entomologica Scandinavica, 26: 120-151.

Figure 1(C) seems to be upside down (reversed) to other illustrations.

Universal meaning of gonocoxite is a basal segment of the gonopod. Homology of gonocoxite with hypandrial appendage is resulted from an idea of fusion of gonopods with hypandrium by Hennig (1976), and then maintained by McAlpine (1981). Fusion of gonopods with hypandrium is present in many lower Brachycera, however there are no evidences in musculature and morphology (segmentation) of such connection in Eremonera. It is a reason I suggest to avoid the term (gonocoxite) in your nomenclature.

Majority of changes you propose are positive, ie. goes to the right standarization of terminology: epandrium, postgonite, pregonite, subepandrial sclerite and cercus. Intruducing of gonocoxite means you follow rather old topological concept of the origin of the hypopygium, perhaps even without clear intention. To establish if I am right and to explain the origin of clasping lobes in Eremonuera: primary homology with lower Diptera (it is a gonostylus) or it has a secondary origin (surstylus), we need a new project of studies based on your criteria mentioned in introduction: ontogeny, functional morphology and phylogenetics in other groups than Drosophilidae to have a broad view on eremoneuran hypopygium.

Tadeusz Zatwarnicki
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Response 1 to Comment 2
Received: 5 August 2019
Commenter: Amir Yassin
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Dear Dr. Zatwarnicki,
Many thanks for your interest in our manuscript and for turning our attention to the current homology debate within the broader Diptera community. We hope that our effort and future research in Drosophila and other Diptera could help resolving these questions.
Figure 1C is oriented according to the anterior-posterior and ventral-dorsal axes indicated in the figure, with the hypandrial complex being ventral to the phallic complex.
With best regards,

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