Preprint Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

Nucleotide Epi-Chains and New Nucleotide Probability Rules in Long DNA Sequences

Version 1 : Received: 30 March 2019 / Approved: 1 April 2019 / Online: 1 April 2019 (13:09:55 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 10 May 2019 / Approved: 14 May 2019 / Online: 14 May 2019 (06:22:48 CEST)

How to cite: Petoukhov, S. Nucleotide Epi-Chains and New Nucleotide Probability Rules in Long DNA Sequences. Preprints 2019, 2019040011 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201904.0011.v2). Petoukhov, S. Nucleotide Epi-Chains and New Nucleotide Probability Rules in Long DNA Sequences. Preprints 2019, 2019040011 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201904.0011.v2).

Abstract

One of creators of quantum mechanics P. Jordan in his work on quantum biology claimed that life's missing laws were the rules of chance and probability of the quantum world. The article presents author’s results of studying frequencies (or probabilities) of nucleotides on so-called epi-chains of long DNA sequences of various eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. DNA epi-chains are algorithmically constructed subsequencies of DNA nucleotide sequences. According to the algorithm of construction of any epi-chain of the order n, the epi-chain is such nucleotide subsequence, in which the numerations of adjacent nucleotides differ by natural number n (n = 1, 2, 3, 4,…). Correspondingly each epi-chain of order n ≥ 2 contains n times less nucleotides than the original DNA sequence. The presented results unexpectedly discover that in long single-stranded and double-stranded DNA of any tested genome its DNA epi-chains of different orders n (values n are not too large) have practically identical frequencies (or probabilities) of each kind of nucleotides. These data allow considering DNA as a regular rich set of epi-chains, which can play a certain role in genetic and epigenetic phenomena as the author belives. Appropriate rules of nucleotide frequencies on epi-chains of long DNA sequences are formulated for further their tests on a wider set of genomes. These results testify on existence of long-range coherence in long DNA and remind the Fröhlich's theory of  long-range coherence in biological systems. The phenomenological data are discussed from different standpoints: the DNA double helices and helical antennas with circular polarizations of electromagnetic waves; relations with the Fröhlich's theory; numerical analysis of DNA epi-chains under binary representations of nucleotides. Results are useful for developing quantum and algebraic biology.

Subject Areas

DNA sequence; helix; nucleotide frequencies; DNA epi-chains; helical antennas; Fröhlich's theory; long-range coherence; epigenetics; quantum biology; binary representation

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.