This version is not peer-reviewed
Steroid Receptors and Vertebrate Evolution
: Received: 28 January 2019 / Approved: 30 January 2019 / Online: 30 January 2019 (12:56:43 CET)
: Received: 29 March 2019 / Approved: 1 April 2019 / Online: 1 April 2019 (13:50:13 CEST)
A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.
Journal reference: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2019, 496
Considering that life on earth evolved about 3.7 billion years ago, vertebrates are young, appearing in the fossil record during the Cambrian explosion about 542 to 515 million years ago. Results from sequence analyses of genomes from bacteria, yeast, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates indicate that receptors for adrenal steroids (aldosterone, cortisol), and sex steroids (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone) also are young, with an estrogen receptor and a 3-ketosteroid receptor first appearing in basal chordates (cephalochordates: amphioxus), which are close ancestors of vertebrates. Through gene duplication and divergence of the 3-ketosteroid receptor, receptors that respond to androgens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and progestins evolved in vertebrates. Thus, an ancestral progesterone receptor and an ancestral corticoid receptor, the common ancestor of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, evolved in jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes: lampreys, hagfish). This was followed by evolution of an androgen receptor, distinct glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors and estrogen receptor-α and -β in cartilaginous fishes (gnathostomes: sharks). Further evolution of mineralocorticoid signaling occurred with the evolution of aldosterone synthase in lungfish, a forerunner of terrestrial vertebrates. Adrenal and sex steroid receptors are not found in echinoderms: and hemichordates, which are ancestors in the lineage of cephalochordates and vertebrates. The evolution of steroid receptors at key nodes in the evolution of vertebrates, in which steroid receptors act as master switches to regulate differentiation, development, reproduction, immune responses, electrolyte homeostasis and stress responses, argues for an important role for steroid receptors in the evolutionary success of vertebrates, considering that the human genome contains about 22,000 genes, which is not much larger than genomes of invertebrates, such as Caenorhabditis elegans (~18,000 genes) and Drosophila (~14,000 genes).
Steroids, Vertebrate Evolution, Amphioxus, Ancestral Estrogen, Cambrian Explosion, Snowball Earth
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