Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Functional Morphology of the Cardiac Jelly in the Tubular Heart of Vertebrate Embryos

Version 1 : Received: 29 January 2019 / Approved: 30 January 2019 / Online: 30 January 2019 (11:16:14 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Männer, J.; Yelbuz, T.M. Functional Morphology of the Cardiac Jelly in the Tubular Heart of Vertebrate Embryos. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6, 12. Männer, J.; Yelbuz, T.M. Functional Morphology of the Cardiac Jelly in the Tubular Heart of Vertebrate Embryos. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6, 12.

Journal reference: J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2019, 6, 12
DOI: 10.3390/jcdd6010012

Abstract

The early embryonic heart is a multi-layered tube consisting of (1) an outer myocardial tube; (2) an inner endocardial tube; and (3) an extracellular matrix layer interposed between myocardium and endocardium, called “cardiac jelly” (CJ). During the past decades, research on CJ has mainly focused on its molecular and cell biological aspects. This review focuses on the morphological and biomechanical aspects of CJ. Special attention is given to (1) the spatial distribution and fiber architecture of CJ; (2) the morphological dynamics of CJ during the cardiac cycle; and (3) the removal/remodeling of CJ during advanced heart looping stages, which leads to the formation of ventricular trabeculations and endocardial cushions. CJ acts as a hydraulic skeleton displaying striking structural and functional similarities with the mesoglea of jellyfish. CJ not only represents a filler substance, facilitating end-systolic occlusion of the embryonic heart lumen. Its elastic components antagonize the systolic deformations of the heart wall and thereby power the refilling phase of the ventricular tube. Non-uniform spatial distribution of CJ generates non-circular cross sections of the opened endocardial tube (initially elliptic, later deltoid), which seem to be advantageous for valveless pumping. Endocardial cushions arise from non-removed remnants of the original CJ.

Subject Areas

embryonic heart tube; extracellular matrix; cardiac jelly; hydraulic skeleton; heart skeleton; valveless pumping; blood flow; non-circular cross sections; ballooning; trabeculation

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