Working Paper Article Version 2 This version is not peer-reviewed

The Status of Knighthood Appointments, Knighthood and Bushido

Version 1 : Received: 8 December 2018 / Approved: 11 December 2018 / Online: 11 December 2018 (09:28:56 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 23 August 2021 / Approved: 23 August 2021 / Online: 23 August 2021 (10:59:00 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 29 November 2021 / Approved: 30 November 2021 / Online: 30 November 2021 (12:01:50 CET)

How to cite: Takeda, S. The Status of Knighthood Appointments, Knighthood and Bushido. Preprints 2018, 2018120118 Takeda, S. The Status of Knighthood Appointments, Knighthood and Bushido. Preprints 2018, 2018120118


Chivalry is a concept that is both familiar and distant to many Japanese. There is no other social class in the world that resembles knights as much as the samurai in Japan. However, why is it that there is such a gap between knights and warriors, even though they are both warriors with the same social status and honor? This paper reviews the legal debates on the deposed sovereigns’ rights have emerged since 20th century. Among them, the right to appoint knights by heads of deposed royal families is one of the focal points. The author begins with a comprehensive review of legal debates on the subject. Six principles on the appointment are extracted from the review. Then, a comparison between chivalry and Bushido, the Japanese Samurai code, was carried out.


Knighthood; international law; Canon Law; order of knighthood; Ramon Lull; Leon Gautier; Bushido


Arts and Humanities, Philosophy

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 23 August 2021
Commenter: Shutaro Takeda
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Expanded the discussions on the similarities between the western chivalry and the eastern counterpart, namely Bushido, the samurai code of conduct.
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