Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Gluten Immunogenic Peptides as Standard for the Evaluation of Potential Harmful Prolamin Content in Food and Human Specimen

Version 1 : Received: 6 November 2018 / Approved: 7 November 2018 / Online: 7 November 2018 (14:28:08 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Cebolla, Á.; Moreno, M.L.; Coto, L.; Sousa, C. Gluten Immunogenic Peptides as Standard for the Evaluation of Potential Harmful Prolamin Content in Food and Human Specimen. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1927. Cebolla, Á.; Moreno, M.L.; Coto, L.; Sousa, C. Gluten Immunogenic Peptides as Standard for the Evaluation of Potential Harmful Prolamin Content in Food and Human Specimen. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1927.

Journal reference: Nutrients 2018, 10, 1927
DOI: 10.3390/nu10121927

Abstract

Gluten is a complex mixture of storage proteins in cereals like wheat, barley and rye. Prolamins are the main components of gluten. Their high content in proline and glutamine makes them water-insoluble and difficult to digest in the gastrointestinal tract. Partial digestion generates peptide sequences which trigger immune responses in celiac and gluten-sensitive patients. Gluten detection in food is challenging because of the diversity, in various food matrices, of protein proportions and their immunogenicity. Attempts to develop standard reference materials have been unsuccessful. We present here a summary of recent studies reporting the detection of dominant Gluten Immunogenic Peptides (GIP) sharing epitopes presented in the α-gliadin 33-mer, the most important celiac disease-immunogenic sequence within gluten. GIP were not only detectable and quantifiable in very different kind of difficult to analyze food, but also in stool and urine of celiac patients on a supposedly gluten-free diet (GFD), providing the first simple and objective means to assess adherence to the GFD. Methods to specifically and sensitively detect the most active GIP in food and biological fluids are rational candidates may use similar analytical standard references for determination of the immunopathological risk of gluten exposure in gluten-related diseases.

Subject Areas

gluten immunogenic peptides; celiac disease; gluten quantitation; gluten food analysis

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