Yamamoto, Y.; Kijima, A.; Okumura, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Gohara, K. A Switching Hybrid Dynamical System: Toward Understanding Complex Interpersonal Behavior. Appl. Sci.2019, 9, 39.
Yamamoto, Y.; Kijima, A.; Okumura, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Gohara, K. A Switching Hybrid Dynamical System: Toward Understanding Complex Interpersonal Behavior. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 39.
Complex human behavior, including interlimb and interpersonal coordination, has been studied from a dynamical system perspective. We review the applications of a dynamical system approach to a sporting activity, which includes continuous, discrete, and switching dynamics. Continuous dynamics identified switching between in- and anti-phase synchronization, controlled by an interpersonal distance of 0.1 m during expert kendo matches, using a relative phase analysis. As discrete dynamics, return map analysis was applied to the time series of movements during kendo matches, and six coordination patterns were classified. Furthermore, state transition probabilities were calculated based on the two states, which clarified the coordination patterns and switching behavior. We introduced switching dynamics with temporal inputs to clarify the simple rules underlying the complex behavior corresponding to switching inputs in a striking action as a non-autonomous system. As a result, we determined that the time evolution of the striking action was characterized as fractal-like movement patterns generated by a simple Cantor set rule with rotation. Finally, we propose a switching hybrid dynamics to understand both court-net sports, as strongly coupled interpersonal competition, and weakly coupled sports, such as martial arts.
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