Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Histidine–Tryptophan-–Ketoglutarate Solution as a Neuroprotective Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

Version 1 : Received: 2 October 2018 / Approved: 5 October 2018 / Online: 5 October 2018 (15:45:43 CEST)

How to cite: Hsu, J.; Wang, C.; Huang, S.; Chen, Y.; Yu, S.; Huang, J.; Lin, J.; Ma, M.; Chen, Y. Histidine–Tryptophan-–Ketoglutarate Solution as a Neuroprotective Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Preprints 2018, 2018100105 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201810.0105.v1). Hsu, J.; Wang, C.; Huang, S.; Chen, Y.; Yu, S.; Huang, J.; Lin, J.; Ma, M.; Chen, Y. Histidine–Tryptophan-–Ketoglutarate Solution as a Neuroprotective Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Preprints 2018, 2018100105 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201810.0105.v1).

Abstract

Ischemic neuron loss contributes to brain dysfunction in patients with cardiac arrest (CA). Histidine–tryptophan–ketoglutarate (HTK) solution is a preservative used during organ transplantation. Can HTK also protect neurons from severe hypoxia (SH) following CA? We isolated rat primary cortical neurons and induced SH with or without HTK. Changes in caspase-3, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), and NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX4) expression were evaluated at different time points till 72 h. Using a rat asphyxia model, we induced CA-mediated brain damage and then completed resuscitation. HTK or sterile saline was administered into the left carotid artery. Neurological deficit scoring and mortality were evaluated for 3 days. Then the rats were sacrificed for evaluating NOX4 and H2O2 level in blood and brain. In the in vitro study, HTK attenuated SH- and H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity in a volume- and time-dependent manner, associated with persisted HIF-1α expression, reductions in procaspase-3 activation and NOX4 expression. The inhibition of HIF-1α abrogated HTK’s effect on NOX4. In the in vivo study, neurological scores were significantly improved by HTK. H2O2 level, NOX4 activity and NOX4 gene expression were all decreased in the brain specimen of HTK-treated rats. Our results suggest that HTK acts as an effective neuroprotective solution.

Subject Areas

1; brain protection 2; HTK 3; cardiac arrest 4; hypoxic injury 5; HIF-1α

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