Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Local Observers in an Expanding Universe: Is the Cosmological Constant Correlated with Thermodynamic Entropy?

Version 1 : Received: 29 September 2018 / Approved: 30 September 2018 / Online: 30 September 2018 (06:19:45 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Tozzi, A.; Peters, J.F. Entropy Balance in the Expanding Universe: A Novel Perspective. Entropy 2019, 21, 406. Tozzi, A.; Peters, J.F. Entropy Balance in the Expanding Universe: A Novel Perspective. Entropy 2019, 21, 406.


We describe cosmic expansion from the standpoint of an observer’s comoving horizon. When the Universe is small, the observer detects a large amount of the total cosmic bits, which number is fixed. Indeed, information, such as energy, cannot be created or destroyed in our Universe, i.e., the total number of cosmic bits must be kept constant, despite the black hole paradox. When the Universe expands, the information gets ergodically “diluted” in our isotopic and homogeneous Cosmos. This means that the observer can perceive just a lower number of the total bits, due the decreased density of information in the cosmic volume (or its surrounding surface, according to the holographic principle) in which she is trapped by speed light’s constraints. Here we ask: how does the second law of thermodynamics enter in this framework? Could it be correlated with cosmic expansion? The correlation is at least partially feasible, because the decrease in the information detected by a local observer in an expanding Universe leads to an increase in detected cosmic thermodynamic entropy, via the Bekenstein bound and the Laudauer principle. Reversing the classical scheme from thermodynamic entropy to information entropy, we suggest that the quantum vacuum’s cosmological constant, that causes cosmic expansion, could be one of the sources of the increases in thermodynamic entropy detected by local observers.


quantum vacuum; Bekenstein bound; cosmological constant; ergodicity


Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics

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