Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Physiological Differentiation of the Plus Trees of Scots Pine: Seasonal Status of Xylem

Version 1 : Received: 20 September 2018 / Approved: 20 September 2018 / Online: 20 September 2018 (05:34:23 CEST)

How to cite: Besschetnova, N.N.; Besschetnov, V.P.; Babich, N.A.; Bryntcev, V.A. Physiological Differentiation of the Plus Trees of Scots Pine: Seasonal Status of Xylem. Preprints 2018, 2018090399 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201809.0399.v1). Besschetnova, N.N.; Besschetnov, V.P.; Babich, N.A.; Bryntcev, V.A. Physiological Differentiation of the Plus Trees of Scots Pine: Seasonal Status of Xylem. Preprints 2018, 2018090399 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201809.0399.v1).

Abstract

An important moment in the establishment of forestry seed orchards is the formation of their optimal composition, avoiding inbreeding depression in the outgoing seed material which occurs due to crossbreeding between closely related plus trees, the clones of which comprise the orchards. It is possible to minimize the negative effect of inbreeding by considering the hereditary aspect of the heterogeneous seed orchard material. The purpose of our work is to provide a comparative assessment of the formation and lignification of xylem in annual shoots of the plus trees of Scots pine. We investigated the formation and lignification of xylem in the annual shoots of the plus trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), found in natural forests in the Nizhny Novgorod region of the Russian Federation. Their vegetative progeny were cultivated in the clone archive stationed in the same region. Analyzing the one-type of the 1-year shoots, the time that the shoots were cut from the branches corresponded to the presence of plants in the characteristic phenological phases of seasonal development. A histochemical study of xylem was conducted, using the qualitative reactions of phloroglucinol to lignin. The power of xylem development was estimated by counting, in the radial direction, the cell rows from the core to the cambium in the microscope’s field of view. A significant differentiation of plus trees was revealed in a complex of signs characterizing the level of xylem development and the degree of xylem cell lignification in the tissues of annual shoots. Phenotypic differences in the physiological state of plus trees appeared given a leveled ecological background, indicating their genotypic determinism. This was confirmed by an analysis of variance. The share of the influence of differences between the proper plus trees was between 25.16%  ± 8.91% and 53.98%  ± 5.48% of the total phenotypic variance of the signs of the seasonal state of xylem. Factor analysis was used to reduce the number of considered indicators of xylem physiological state. The results allowed a cluster analysis to be carried out on the basis of the normalized values of the initial xylem features as well as the principal components derived from them. The association of plus trees was done on the basis of the similarity of the multidimensional estimates of xylem seasonal condition. The objects that were the most remote from the others were identified. This information provides a reasonable approach to the formation of an assortment of Scots pine seed orchards.

Subject Areas

scots pine; plus-trees; xylem; lignification; physiological condition; hereditary conditionality; factor analysis; cluster analysis

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