Preprint Article Version 4 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

C4 Space-Time.. A Window to New Physics?

Version 1 : Received: 17 September 2018 / Approved: 19 September 2018 / Online: 19 September 2018 (08:18:55 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 26 October 2018 / Approved: 29 October 2018 / Online: 29 October 2018 (11:32:19 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 16 October 2019 / Approved: 17 October 2019 / Online: 17 October 2019 (09:51:27 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 5 February 2020 / Approved: 7 February 2020 / Online: 7 February 2020 (04:34:13 CET)

How to cite: Mastoridis, D.; Kalogirou, K. C4 Space-Time.. A Window to New Physics?. Preprints 2018, 2018090368. Mastoridis, D.; Kalogirou, K. C4 Space-Time.. A Window to New Physics?. Preprints 2018, 2018090368.


We explore the possibility to form a physical theory in $C^4$. We argue that the expansion of our usual 4-d real space-time to a 4-d complex space-time, can serve us to describe geometrically electromagnetism and nuclear fields and unify it with gravity, in a different way that Kaluza-Klein theories do. Specifically, the electromagnetic field $A_\mu$, is included in the free geodesic equation of $C^4$. By embedding our usual 4-d real space-time in the symplectic 8-d real space-time (symplectic $R^8$ is algebraically isomorphic to $C^4$), we derive the usual geodesic equation of a charged particle in gravitational field, plus new information which is interpreted. Afterwards, we formulate and explore the extended special relativity and extended general relativity an $C^4$ or$R^8$. After embedding our usual 4-d space-time in $R^8$, two new phenomena rise naturally, that are interpreted as "dark matter" and "dark energy". A new cosmological model is presented, while the geometrical terms associated with "dark matter" and "dark energy" are investigated. Similarities, patterns and differences between "dark matter", "dark energy", ordinary matter and radiation are presented, where "dark energy" is a dynamic entity and "dark matter" reveal itself as a "mediator" betwen ordinary matter and "dark energy". Moreover, "dark matter" is deeply connected with "dark energy". Furthermore, the extended Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the extended space-time, is transformed naturally as an extended Klein-Gordon equation, in order to get in contact with quantum theories. By solving the Klein-Gordon equation analytically, we derive an eigenvalue for Higg's boson mass value at 125,173945 $Gev/c^{2}$. The extended Klein-Gordon equation, also connects Higg's boson (or vacuum) with Cosmology, due to the existence of our second "time" T (cosmological time), which serve us to connect quantum theories with Cosmology. Afterwards, in the general case, we explore the symmetries of the curved Hamilton-Jacobi equation locally, in order to investigate the consequences of a $C^4$ space-time in Standard Model. An extension to Standard Model is revealed, especially in the sector of strong nuclear field. The Stiefel manifold $SU(4)/SU(2)$ seems capable not only to describe the strong nuclear field but give us,as well, enough room to explore in the future, the possibility to explain quark confinment. Our extension, flavors firstly the unification of nuclear fields and afterwards the unification of nuclear fields with electromagnetic field. The desired grand unification, is achieved locally, through the symmetry group $GL(4,C)\simeq SO(4,4)\cap U(4)$ and we present a potential mechanism to reduce the existing particle numbers to just six. Afterwards,23 present the extended Dirac equation in $C^4$ space-time (Majorana-Weyl representation) plus a preliminary attempt to introduce a pure geometric structure for fermions. Finally, we consider a new geometric structure through n-linear forms in order to give geometric explanation for quantisation


extended space-time; complex space-time; unified theories; geometric unification; dark matter-energy; Cartan's principle of triality;extended general-special relativity


Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 7 February 2020
Commenter: Dimitris Mastoridis
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: This is a summary of our work and also contains data for Cosmology and Standard Model
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