Alzagameem, A.; Khaldi-Hansen, B.E.; Büchner, D.; Larkins, M.; Kamm, B.; Witzleben, S.; Schulze, M. Lignocellulosic Biomass as Source for Lignin-Based Environmentally Benign Antioxidants. Molecules2018, 23, 2664.
Alzagameem, A.; Khaldi-Hansen, B.E.; Büchner, D.; Larkins, M.; Kamm, B.; Witzleben, S.; Schulze, M. Lignocellulosic Biomass as Source for Lignin-Based Environmentally Benign Antioxidants. Molecules 2018, 23, 2664.
Antioxidant activity is an essential feature required for oxygen-sensitive merchandise and goods, such as food and corresponding packaging as well as materials used in cosmetics and biomedicine. For example, vanillin, one of the most prominent antioxidants, is fabricated from lignin, the second most abundant natural polymer in the world. Antioxidant potential is primarily related to the termination of oxidation propagation reactions through hydrogen transfer. The application of technical lignin as a natural antioxidant has not yet been implemented in the industrial sector, mainly due to the complex heterogeneous structure and polydispersity of lignin. Thus, current research focuses on various isolation and purification strategies to improve the compatibility of lignin material with substrates and enhancing its stabilizing effect. This contribution presents antioxidant capacity studies of various lignins depending on purification degree of the raw material. In detail, the antioxidant potential of lignin-based compounds is studied using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The purification procedure was monitored by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and showed that double-fold selective extraction is the most efficient purification procedure (confirmed by UV-Vis, FTIR, HSQC and 31P NMR spectroscopy, SEC and XRD analysis). Results are discussed regarding the dependency of antioxidant activity on lignin structure and biomass source. Thus, lignins obtained from industrial black liquor are compared with beech wood samples. In addition, the influence of lignin isolation (kraft versus organosolv) is discussed. Values of the antioxidant activity (DPPH inhibition) of kraft lignin fractions were 62-68% while beech and spruce/pine-mixed lignins showed values between 26, 64 and 42%, respectively. TPC values of the different isolated kraft lignin fractions varied between 26-35%, while beech, spruce/pine lignins were 34, 30 and 34%, respectively. Storage decreased the TPC values and increased the DPPH inhibition.
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