Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

A Further Investigation of NH4+ Removal Mechanisms by Using Natural and Synthetic Zeolites in Different Concentrations and Temperatures

Version 1 : Received: 10 September 2018 / Approved: 11 September 2018 / Online: 11 September 2018 (08:50:29 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Chen, H.-F.; Lin, Y.-J.; Chen, B.-H.; Yoshiyuki, I.; Liou, S. .-H.; Huang, R.-T. A Further Investigation of NH4+ Removal Mechanisms by Using Natural and Synthetic Zeolites in Different Concentrations and Temperatures. Minerals 2018, 8, 499. Chen, H.-F.; Lin, Y.-J.; Chen, B.-H.; Yoshiyuki, I.; Liou, S. .-H.; Huang, R.-T. A Further Investigation of NH4+ Removal Mechanisms by Using Natural and Synthetic Zeolites in Different Concentrations and Temperatures. Minerals 2018, 8, 499.

Journal reference: Minerals 2018, 8, 499
DOI: 10.3390/min8110499

Abstract

We investigate the ammonium removal abilities of natural and synthetic zeolites, which have distinct Si/Al ratios and various surface areas, to study how adsorption and ion-exchange processes in zeolites perform under different ammonium concentrations and different temperatures. Five zeolites including natural mordenite, chabazite, erionite, clinoptilolite and synthetic merlinoite were immersed in 20 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg ammonium solutions. The results demonstrate that zeolites under high ammonium concentrations (100 mg/kg) possess higher physical adsorption capacity (0.398–0.468 meq/g), whereas those under lower ammonium concentrations (20 mg/kg) possess greater ion-exchange property (64–99%). The ion-exchange ability of zeolites are extremely dependent on the cation content of the zeolites, and the cation content is affected by the Si/Al ratio. The surface area of zeolites also has a partial influence on its physical adsorption ability. When the surface area is less than 100 m2/g, the adsorption ability of zeolite increases obviously with surface area; however, adsorption ability is saturated as the surface area becomes larger than this critical value of 100 m2/g. When we carried out the zeolites in 50 mg/kg ammonium concentration at different temperatures (5~50 ℃), we found that zeolites exhibit the highest ammonium removal ability at 30°C and the potassium release was enhanced at 30~40 ℃.

Subject Areas

zeolite; ion-exchange; adsorption; ammonium; Si/Al; temperature

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