Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

p-21 Activated Kinase as a Molecular Target for Chemoprevention in Diabetes

Version 1 : Received: 23 August 2018 / Approved: 23 August 2018 / Online: 23 August 2018 (05:10:55 CEST)

How to cite: Dammann, K.; Khare, V.; Coleman, C.; Berdel, H.; Gasche, C. p-21 Activated Kinase as a Molecular Target for Chemoprevention in Diabetes. Preprints 2018, 2018080403 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0403.v1). Dammann, K.; Khare, V.; Coleman, C.; Berdel, H.; Gasche, C. p-21 Activated Kinase as a Molecular Target for Chemoprevention in Diabetes. Preprints 2018, 2018080403 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0403.v1).

Abstract

Hypothesis: Anti-diabetic drugs modulate p-21 activated kinase (PAK) signaling Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with increased cancer risk. PAK signaling is implicated in cellular homeostasis when regulated, and cancer when unrestrained. Recent reports provided a role for PAK signaling in glucose homeostasis, but the role of PAKs in the pathogenesis of T2DM is unknown. Here we explored whether PAK signaling should be targeted via chemoprevention to reduce diabetes-associated cancer risk. Methods: PAK interacting partners in T2DM were identified using online STRING database. Systematic literature review provided the effect of anti-diabetic drugs on PAK signaling. Review of clinical studies revealed the overall clinical response rate and percentage of adverse events in piogliazone (n=53) and metformin (n=91) treated patients with PAK-dependent diseases. Results: A total of 30 PAK interacting partners were identified (10: reduced beta-cell mass; 10: beta-cell dysfunction; 10: obesity-insulin resistance) which were highly associated with Wnt, and G-protein signaling. Anti-diabetic drug metformin activated signaling pathways upstream; whereas pioglitazone inhibited pathways downstream of PAK. Overall clinical response upon pioglitazone treatment was 53%. 79% of pioglitazone and 75% of metformin treated patients had adverse events. Pioglitazone reduced molecular-PAK biomarkers of proliferation (Ki67 and CyclinD1), and metformin had the opposite effect. Conclusions: PAK signaling in T2DM involves Wnt and G-protein signaling which is altered by anti-diabetic drugs metformin and pioglitazone. Apart from the therapeutic limitations of adverse events, pioglitazone is promising in chemoprevention, however long-term multi-centered studies, which initiate pioglitazone treatment early will be required to fully assess the full potential of these drugs.

Subject Areas

p-21 activated kinase; pioglitazone, metformin, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, chemoprevention, and inflammation.

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